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Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive

The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 °C to 375 °C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled (trap regeneration initiated at full load rated speed after which the engine was cut to idle) conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Ceramic Particle Trap and Copper Fuel Additive on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions and mutagenic activity] from a 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. The engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60 and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30 and 60 ppm Cu levels. Data were also collected to assess the effect of the additive on regeneration temperature and duration. Copper species collected within the trap were identified and exhaust copper concentrations quantified.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive

The purpose of this research was to study the pressure drop profiles and regeneration temperature characteristics of Silicon Carbide (SiC) filters with and without a copper-based additive in the fuel, and also to compare their performance with two cordierite traps designated as EX-47 and EX-80. The collection of the particulate matter inside the trap imposes a backpressure on the engine which requires a periodic oxidation or regeneration of the particulate matter. The presence of copper additive in the fuel reduces the particulate ignition temperature from approximately 500 to 375°C. Two SiC systems were tested during this research. The first system consisted of one 14 L SiC trap, while the second system, the dual trap system (DTS), consisted of two 12 L SiC traps mounted in parallel. The test matrix included two types of regeneration tests, controlled and uncontrolled and three levels of Cu fuel additive (0, 30, and 60 ppm).
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.