Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1046
In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Journal Article

Measurement of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion upon Different Nozzle Geometry using Hybrid Imaging Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1410
High pressure diesel sprays were visualized under vaporizing and combusting conditions in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Near-simultaneous visualization of vapor and liquid phase fuel distribution were acquired using a hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging setup. This imaging technique used two pulsed LED's operating in an alternative manner to provide proper light sources for both shadowgraph and Mie scattering. In addition, combustion cases under the same ambient conditions were visualized through high-speed combustion luminosity measurement. Two single-hole diesel injectors with same nozzle diameters (100μm) but different k-factors (k0 and k1.5) were tested in this study. Detailed analysis based on spray penetration rate curves, rate of injection measurements, combustion indicators and 1D model comparison have been performed.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

2013-04-08
2013-01-1126
Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1144
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0837
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO₂ oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Technical Paper

Application of Signature Analysis and Operating Deflection Shapes to Identify Interior Noise Sources in an Excavator

2007-05-15
2007-01-2427
The objective of this study was to identify and gain an understanding of the origins of noise in a commercial excavator cab. This paper presents the results of two different tests that were used to characterize the vibration and acoustic characteristics of the excavator cab. The first test was done in an effort to characterize the vibration properties of the cab panels and their associated contribution to the noise level inside the cab. The second set, of tests, was designed to address the contribution of the external airborne noise produced by the engine and hydraulic pump to the overall interior noise. This paper describes the test procedures used to obtain the data for the signature analysis, operational deflection shapes (ODS), and sound diagnosis analysis. It also contains a discussion of the analysis results and an inside look into the possible contributors of key frequencies to the interior noise in the excavator cab.
Technical Paper

Analytical Simulation of the Effects of Noise Control Treatments on an Excavator Cab using Statistical Energy Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2315
The objective of this study was to utilize Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to simulate the effects of a variety of noise control treatments on the interior sound pressure level (SPL) of a commercial excavator cab. In addition, the effects of leaks on the SPL of the excavator cab were also investigated. This project was conducted along with various tests that were used to determine the inputs needed to accurately represent the loads that the cab experienced during operation. This paper explains the how the model was constructed, how the loads were applied to the model, the results that were obtained from application of treatments, and a study of the effects of introducing leaks to the cab structure in the SEA model.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Results Comparing Two Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0484
Steady-state particulate loading experiments were conducted on an advanced production catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), both with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). A heavy-duty diesel engine was used for this study with the experiments conducted at 20, 40, 60 and 75 % of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm). The data obtained from these experiments were used and are necessary for calibrating the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. These experimental and modeling results were compared to previous research conducted at MTU that used the same engine but an earlier development version of the combination of DOC and CPF. The motivation for the comparison of the two systems was to determine whether the reformulated production catalysts performed as good or better than the early development catalysts. The results were compared to understand the filtration and oxidation differences between the two DOC+CPF and the CPF-only aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Accelerometer Based Sensing of Combustion in a High Speed HPCR Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0972
The capability to detect combustion in a diesel engine has the potential of being an important control feature to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations and for the development of alternative combustion strategies such as HCCI and PCCI. In this work, block mounted accelerometers are investigated as potential feedback sensors for detecting combustion characteristics in a high-speed, high pressure common rail (HPCR), 1.9L diesel engine. Accelerometers are positioned in multiple placements and orientations on the engine, and engine testing is conducted under motored, single and pilot-main injection conditions. Engine tests are then conducted at varying injection timings to observe the resulting time and frequency domain changes of both the pressure and acceleration signals.
Technical Paper

Quantifying How the Environment Effects SAE-J192 Pass-by Noise Testing of Snowmobiles

2005-05-16
2005-01-2414
A study was performed to understand how the environment affects the results of J-192 pass-by noise testing of snowmobiles. This study involved measuring the sound pressure at 7 different microphone positions due to both speaker excitation and various snowmobiles passing through the microphone array. Simultaneous to the sound measurements, weather conditions were recorded including wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, snow depth, and in some cases ground hardness. All measured data was then used to determine which environmental factors influenced the measured sound pressures the most. Finally, a sound power approach was also used to measure the snowmobile pass-by noise to determine whether this method was more repeatable than the single microphone approach which showed variations of over 7 dBA over the course of testing.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Automotive Torque Converter Design Parameters on the Onset of Cavitation at Stall

2007-05-15
2007-01-2231
This paper details a study of the effects of multiple torque converter design and operating point parameters on the resistance of the converter to cavitation during vehicle launch. The onset of cavitation is determined by an identifiable change in the noise radiating from the converter during operation, when the collapse of cavitation bubbles becomes detectable by nearfield acoustical measurement instrumentation. An automated torque converter dynamometer test cell was developed to perform these studies, and special converter test fixturing is utilized to isolate the test unit from outside disturbances. A standard speed sweep test schedule is utilized, and an analytical technique for identifying the onset of cavitation from acoustical measurement is derived. Effects of torque converter diameter, torus dimensions, and pump and stator blade designs are determined.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Electro-acoustic Techniques for In-Situ Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Grass and Artificial Turf Surfaces

2007-05-15
2007-01-2225
The classical methods of measuring acoustic absorption coefficient using an impedance tube and a reverberation chamber are well established [1, 2]. However, these methods are not suitable for in-situ applications. The two in-situ methods; single channel microphone (P- probe) and dual channel acoustic pressure and particle velocity (Pu-probe) methods based on measurement of impulse response functions of the material surface under test, provide considerable advantage in data acquisition, signal processing, ease and mobility of measurement setup. This paper evaluates the measurement techniques of these two in-situ methods and provides results of acoustic absorption coefficient of a commercial artificial Astroturf, a Dow quash material, and a grass surface.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Filtration and Oxidation Characteristics of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-1123
An experimental and modeling study was conducted to study the passive regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) by the oxidation of particulate matter (PM) via thermal and Nitrogen dioxide/temperature-assisted means. Emissions data in the exhaust of a John Deere 6.8 liter, turbocharged and after-cooled engine with a low-pressure loop EGR and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) - catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in the exhaust system was measured and used for this study. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the DOC, CPF and DOC+CPF configurations at various engine speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an Acoustic Encapsulation to Reduce Diesel Engine Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2375
This paper describes a study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an acoustic encapsulation to reduce airborne noise from a commercial diesel engine. First, the various sources of noise from the engine were identified using Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH). Detailed NAH measurements were conducted on the four sides of the engine in an engine test cell. The main sources of noise from the engine were ranked and identified within the frequency ranges of interest. Experimental modal analysis was conducted on the oil pan and front cover plate of the engine to reveal correlations of structural vibration results with the data from the NAH. The second phase of the study involved the design and fabrication of the acoustical encapsulation (noise covers) for the engine in a test cell to satisfy the requirements of space, cost and performance constraints. The acoustical materials for the enclosure were selected to meet the frequency and temperature ranges of interest.
Journal Article

Ionization Signal Response during Combustion Knock and Comparison to Cylinder Pressure for SI Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0981
In-cylinder ion sensing is a subject of interest due to its application in spark-ignited (SI) engines for feedback control and diagnostics including: combustion knock detection, rate and phasing of combustion, and mis-fire On Board Diagnostics (OBD). Further advancement and application is likely to continue as the result of the availability of ignition coils with integrated ion sensing circuitry making ion sensing more versatile and cost effective. In SI engines, combustion knock is controlled through closed loop feedback from sensor metrics to maintain knock near the borderline, below engine damage and NVH thresholds. Combustion knock is one of the critical applications for ion sensing in SI engines and improvement in knock detection offers the potential for increased thermal efficiency. This work analyzes and characterizes the ionization signal in reference to the cylinder pressure signal under knocking and non-knocking conditions.
X