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Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emission with New Water Injection System in a Diesel Engine

In this study a new water injection system was applied to an 11 liter naturally aspirated DI diesel engine in order to reduce exhaust emissions. In this system, the water and fuel were arranged in the injection nozzle during the time between injections as fuel, water and then fuel. The fuel and water were then injected into the cylinder in that order. The tests were conducted at several engine operating conditions from the Japanese 13 mode test cycle to clarify effects of water injection on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NOx reduction was directly proportional to the relative amount of water injection, regardless of engine speed and load. By using the optimal relative amount of water injection at each engine operating condition, total NOx and particulate matter (PM) in the Japanese 13 mode test cycle were reduced by 50% and 25%, respectively, without a fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Fuel Injection System for Improvement of Engine Performance on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

With the intention of improving engine performance and emissions, the authors examined the influence of the method of initial fuel injection quantity reduction and of the injector configuration of a common rail fuel injection system on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Results showed that decreasing the nozzle hole diameter was an effective way to reduce the initial injection quantity without increasing black smoke. Compared to a three-way type injector, it was found that a two-way type injector can greatly reduce the amount of fuel leakage from the electromagnetic injector control valve and fuel consumption could be further improved by reduction of the driving loss. Furthermore, the increase of driving losses with higher injection pressure was small, and as a result, higher pressure injection was possible.
Technical Paper

Application of Common Rail Fuel Injection System to a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

In the diesel engine industry, the growing trends are toward wider use of electronically controlled high pressure fuel injection equipment to provide better engine performance, while conforming to the stringent exhaust emission standards. Although there have been some recent announcements of a diesel engine that applies an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system, there is little literature published about any attempt to reduce both exhaust emissions and noise and to improve engine performance by varying injection pressure and injection timing independently and introducing pilot injection in combination. This paper describes the details of a study made on the parameters associated with injection timing, injection pressure and pilot injection and the procedures for their optimization, with an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system installed in an in-line 6-cylinder 6.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Technology for Low Emission, Combustion Noise and Fuel Consumption on Diesel Engine

In order to reduce exhaust emission and combustion noise and to improve fuel consumption, the effects of the combustion system parameters of a diesel engine, such as injection pressure, injection nozzle hole diameter, swirl ratio, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption are investigated and described in detail by analyzing rate of heat release, needle valve lift and injection pressure. Based on these results, reduction of exhaust emission and combustion noise and improvement of fuel consumption are described in the latter part of this paper. These results are shown as follows. The smaller nozzle hole diameter is effective for reducing smoke and PM, and by optimizing the injection timing and swirl ratio, NOx can also be reduced. In addition to the above, by applying EGR and higher injection pressure it is possible to improve the fuel consumption with the remaining low NOx and PM.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1991 U.S.A. Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Protection of the Earth's environment by means of energy saving and cleaning up of air pollution on a global scale is one of the most important subjects in the world today. Because of this, the requirements for better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have been getting stronger, and, in particular, simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) without degrading fuel economy has become a major subject. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MM) has been selling diesel-powered heavy-duty trucks in the U.S. market since 1985 and has agressively carried out development work for meeting the 1991 model year exhaust emission standards.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1994 USA Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Recent global environmental problems which have come to light must be solved for ensuring the survival of the human race. And it is of the utmost importance that we give to our descendants a world full of nature and beauty. In the past years Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has long been positive in research and the development activities so as to satisfy the demands for low emission and good fuel economy vehicles. (1) As one example of our research efforts, the technology that will meet the US '94 HDDE exhaust emission regulations, which is one of the most stringent regulations in the world, is described in this paper. The exhaust emissions were reduced by improvement of combustion, using the pre-stroke control type fuel injection pump and optimizing the combustion chamber shape. Efforts were also made to improve the oil consumption, in order to reduce PM (Particulate Matter) emission.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.