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Technical Paper

Development of thermoplastic elastomeric vacuum hose for engine control

Vulcanized rubber hoses are difficult to recycle and have a complicated manufacturing process. Recently, we have developed the vacuum hose for engine control out of thermoplastic elastomers. As a result of this development, scrap material from the manufacturing process can be recycled and, in addition, about a 30 percent weight reduction and a 20 percent cost reduction are achievable by virtue of the lower specific gravity and by the more simplified manufacturing process. In order to assess the feasibility of using thermoplastic elastomers for vacuum hoses, we developed a heat aging simulation test method. This was achieved by first investigating the actual vehicle environmental conditions of currently used vacuum hoses by retrieving and examining these hoses from used vehicles. We then extrapolated what the condition of such hoses would be after being subjected to heat aging for 200,000 km of service in an actual vehicle, and applied this calculation to our newly developed hoses.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Torque Converter-Its Effect on Acceleration Performance of Auto-Trans. Equipped Vehicles

In previous studies(1)(2), the acceleration performance of vehicles equipped with torque converter has been analysed with the assumption that the converter characteristic was under continued steady-state. However, in case of sharp acceleration of the fluid flow in the converter from inactive flow condition, which would occur at wide-open throttle starting, it is not possible to accurately analyse the vehicle performance at immediately after starting if the converter characteristic is assumed to remain under steady-state condition. In this paper, the transient phenomenon in the converter is verified by applying the theory of angular momentum and the concept of energy balance through the converter elements providing with a dynamic-model for the driveline. The present study has clarified the effect of the transient converter characteristic, at sharp starting, on the acceleration performance.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Fan Noise Caused by Crankshaft Torsional Vibration

Improvements of interior and exterior noise are important targets in vehicle engineering. There are many reports concerning the reduction of radiator cooling fan noise. But, most of those reports are associated with studies of air flow noise. A radiator cooling fan connected to a crankshaft occasionally radiates structure-borne noise in addition to air flow noise. This structure-borne noise is caused by fan blade vibration excited by torsional vibration of a crankshaft. In this paper, we surveyed the mechanism of the structure-borne noise and discussed some methods for the noise reduction. And, as a result, we developed one of the noise reduction technique aiming at isolation of crankshaft vibration by modifying viscosity of the oil in a fan clutch.
Technical Paper

Control Technology off Minimal Slip-Type Torque Converter Clutch

If a torque converter clutch is allowed to slip to a minimal amount, engine torque can be transmitted through a transmission without torque variation problem, and also low fuel consumption is realized by putting the clutch in operation even at low engine revolution. Oil pressure applied to clutch is electronically feedback-controlled to keep clutch slip to a minimal amount. But this feedback system tends to become unstable by impairment of various factors of the system. This paper relates to the stability analysis of feedback system, and especially to the control method by which feedback system can be made stable even when µ-v characteristic of clutch facing material is impaired.
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Cooling System Performance

This paper describes a method of predicting cooling performance in order to obtain the optimum design of the cooling system and front-end shape in the early stage of car development. This method consists of four calculation parts: thermal load on the cooling system, air flow through the engine compartment, heat dissipation by the heat exchangers and temperature distribution within the cooling system. It outputs the coolant, engine oil, automatic transmission fluid (A.T.F.) and charge air temperatures in exchange for the input of several car, power plant, drive train, exterior shape and cooling system specifications. For the calculations, in addition to theoretical formulas, several experimental formulas are introduced. This method verification is shown by presenting a few test cases for the respective calculation parts and the final solution.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Idling Rattle Noise in Trucks

Optimization of the clutch torsional characteristics is one of the effective methods to reduce the idling rattle noise. Many researches on th.s problem have been reported, but only few of them give sufficient consideration to the drag torque applied to the clutch disc during engine idling. This paper pays attention to the drag torque and discusses the mechanism of idling rattle noise by using vehicle testing, bench test with rotating torsional exciter and computer simulation. Reauction of Idling
Technical Paper

Engine Weight Reduction Using Alternative Light Materials

This paper presents several methods for reducing engine weight primarily through substitution with light-weight materials. The efficiency and performance of the engine were reviewed using a light-weight experimental engine (hereinafter called “weight-reduced engine”) constructed by the authors in order to investigate the possibility of practical use of the proposed weight reduction measures. The weight-reduced engine is based on an in-line 4-cylinder, 2.0 liter, gasoline engine with the base engine weight of 162 kg excluding engine oil and coolant and was reduced by 37 kg by applying alternative light-weight materiaLs and new manufacturing techniques. This corresponds to 23 % weight reduction. The materials used in the weight-reduced engine are 53 % steel, 33 % aluminum, 7 % plastics and 7 % other light-weight materials. It was found that by application of light-weight materials, the engine performance of the weight-reduced engine could be improved.