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Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of a Small Specialty Car

Aerodynamic drag reduction is one of the most important aspects of enhancing overall vehicle performance. Many car manufacturers have been working to establish drag reduction techniques. This paper describes the development process of a new small speciality car which achieved coefficient of drag(CD) of 0.25. A description of the test facilities and the systems used for developing the aerodynamic aspect of the car are also introduced briefly.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Dent Resistance of Automobile Body Panels

Optimizing the design of automobile outer panels for weight reductions requires a consideration of stiffness and dent resistance. This paper presents a finite element analysis method for predicting the dent resistance of automobile body panels. The method is based on elastoplasticity analysis and nonlinear contact analysis. The analysis shows that dent resistance is greatly influenced not only by the stress-strain curve of the formed panel but also by the residual stress in the panel. An increase in yield stress improves dent resistance. The computed results obtained with this method compare favorably with experimental data, thereby validating this approach.
Technical Paper

Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixing for a Center-Spark Four-Valve Engine Employing the Concept of Barrel-Stratification

Flow and flame structure visualization and modeling were performed to clarify the characteristics of bulk flow, turbulence and mixing in a four-valve engine to adopt the lean combustion concept named “Barrel-Stratification” to the larger displacement center-spark four-valve engine. It was found that the partitions provided in the intake port and the tumble-control piston with a curved-top configuration were effective to enhance the lean combustion of such an engine. By these methods, the fuel distribution in the intake port and the in-cylinder bulk flow structure are optimized, so that the relatively rich mixture zone is arranged around the spark plug. The tumble-control piston also contributes to optimize the flow field structure after the distortion of tumble and to enable stable lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Shape Study for a Low-Air Resistance Air Deflector - The Second Report

We reported, in our first report1), the study of shapes of air deflectors that have strong yawing angle characteristics for the air resistance encountered when vehicles are running at high speed, taking into account the ambient wind. However, it is rarely the case that the optimum shape of air deflector, which was obtained and reported in our first report, is directly adopted for practical use. This paper reports the results of measurement tests on how the air resistance increases (worsens) when an air deflector is mounted on the cab of a vehicle: in the case when the air deflector was slightly changed on the same vehicle; or when the parameters of the vehicle (the height of the rear body) were changed for the same air deflector. We obtained the following results: Considerations and adjustments are required not to allow flows passing over upper and side surfaces of the air deflector to hit the front surface of the rear body.
Technical Paper

Development of Austempered Ductile Iron Timing Gears

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material having excellent mechanical properties and damping capacity. However practical mass production of ADI gears has not been possible due to ADI's poor machinability and distortion during the austempering heat treatment. With a new process method of carrying out hobbing before austempering when the material is in its soft condition, then austempering it and lastly, conducting the shave finishing process, we have diminished the above defects and developed practical ADI gears. These new gears generate less noise than ordinary nitrocarburized steel gears and are superior in pitting resistance.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Idling Rattle Noise in Trucks

Optimization of the clutch torsional characteristics is one of the effective methods to reduce the idling rattle noise. Many researches on th.s problem have been reported, but only few of them give sufficient consideration to the drag torque applied to the clutch disc during engine idling. This paper pays attention to the drag torque and discusses the mechanism of idling rattle noise by using vehicle testing, bench test with rotating torsional exciter and computer simulation. Reauction of Idling
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence in Intake Port of MPI Engine on Fuel Transport Phenomena and Nonuniformity of Fuel/Air Mixing in Cylinder

Three zone mixture preparation model, assuming that fuel and air are distributed in three separate zones, fuel air and mixture zone, was proposed. Air Utilization Efficiency derived from the model was used to evaluate the mixing nonuniformity. Effect of the large scale nonisotropic turbulence downstream of the dimple or edge in the intake port of MPI engine on the convective mass transfer from fuel film was clarified by the proposed nondimensional index, Local Sherwood Number. It was found that when the fuel is injected toward the wall where large scale turbulence exists, almost all of the fuel is seeded in the air passing the region at the beginning of the intake process, resulting in the time-resolved nonuniformity of the mixture strength at the intake valve. Using the Air Utilization Efficiency, it was elucidated that time-resolved mixing nonuniformity at intake valves induces spatially nonuniform fuel/air distribution in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Keynote on Future Combustion Engines

A characteristic mechanism of in-cylinder combustion is “time-domain mixing” which mixes up unburned gas, products in the different stages of combustion process, and burned gas, by “eddy”, a flow component with its scales of several to 10 mm. It seems to play a role in completing the combustion. Now that direct injection is a central engine technology, a keyword to combustion control is “freedom of mixing”, that is, no restriction on mixture formation, realized by direct injection. Various kinds of combustion control technologies utilizing it, have been presented. After combustion control for a premixed leanburn gasoline engine, and a direct injection gasoline engine, was achieved by turbulence control, and mixing control, respectively, the next target of combustion control will be ignition control. It will be possible, by controlling some boundary condition on combustion and fuel chemistry. Time-domain mixing and freedom of mixing will support it.