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Technical Paper

Development of Austempered Ductile Iron Timing Gears

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material having excellent mechanical properties and damping capacity. However practical mass production of ADI gears has not been possible due to ADI's poor machinability and distortion during the austempering heat treatment. With a new process method of carrying out hobbing before austempering when the material is in its soft condition, then austempering it and lastly, conducting the shave finishing process, we have diminished the above defects and developed practical ADI gears. These new gears generate less noise than ordinary nitrocarburized steel gears and are superior in pitting resistance.
Technical Paper

Intake-Port Design for Mitsubishi GDI Engine to Realize Distinctive In-Cylinder Flow and High Charge Coefficient

The Mitsubishi GDI engine has adopted a pair of upright intake ports, to induce a rotating in-cylinder flow, reverse tumble, and control air fuel mixing with this flow. The port design of the GDI engine was optimized for achieving a high intensity of the reverse tumble while maintaining a high charge coefficient, by means of modeling of in-cylinder flow and experiment with a steady flow rig. First of all, the ideal design of the upright ports was discussed. It was found that for enhancing the reverse tumble, it is more effective to arrange a pair of the ports parallel, than to arrange them convergent. The parallel arrangement leads to the smoother flows passing through the intake sides of the intake valves, and then descending on the cylinder liner, that is turning toward the rotation direction of the reverse tumble, because of less impingement of the flows through a pair of the valves.
Technical Paper

Development of thermoplastic elastomeric vacuum hose for engine control

Vulcanized rubber hoses are difficult to recycle and have a complicated manufacturing process. Recently, we have developed the vacuum hose for engine control out of thermoplastic elastomers. As a result of this development, scrap material from the manufacturing process can be recycled and, in addition, about a 30 percent weight reduction and a 20 percent cost reduction are achievable by virtue of the lower specific gravity and by the more simplified manufacturing process. In order to assess the feasibility of using thermoplastic elastomers for vacuum hoses, we developed a heat aging simulation test method. This was achieved by first investigating the actual vehicle environmental conditions of currently used vacuum hoses by retrieving and examining these hoses from used vehicles. We then extrapolated what the condition of such hoses would be after being subjected to heat aging for 200,000 km of service in an actual vehicle, and applied this calculation to our newly developed hoses.
Technical Paper

Mitsubishi's Compound Intake System Engine

Mitsubishi Motors Corporation presents the newly-developed 2-liter engine, which we have named SIRIUS DASH. The SIRIUS DASH engine, with its compound intake system, features great performance in both high and low speed ranges while keeping fuel consumption low. The compound intake system operates the 3 valves in 2 stages. When engine speed is low, just one intake valve is used, but when engine speed increases, two intake valves are used. And to make this engine truly extraordinary, we added a turbocharger with an intercooler, and equipped the whole thing with a total electonic control system. Generally, high performance engines which have large inlet ports and high speed type valve timing enabling them to intake sufficient air for high performance at high speeds. The problem is here that when speed is dropped, combustion becomes unstable at the expense of torque and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Development of Titanium Alloy Valve Spring Retainers

Beta Ti alloy valve spring retainers are newly developed for use in mass produced automobiles for the first time. Ti alloy valve spring retainers vith a weight saving of 42%, compared to steel retainers, have reduced the inertial weight of the valve train components by 6%. And this weight reduction has the benefit of increasing the upper limit of the engine speed, which improves the engine performance. Ti alloy valve spring retainers are cold forged by the conventional fabrication facilities for steel retainers, using Ti-22V-4Al (the beta Ti alloy) which possesses excellent cold workability in a solution treated condition. Oxygen surface hardening is applied to protect Ti alloy valve spring retainers from wear damage. In addition, aging treatment and shot blasting are performed to improve strength and stiffness of valve retainers.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Fan Noise Caused by Crankshaft Torsional Vibration

Improvements of interior and exterior noise are important targets in vehicle engineering. There are many reports concerning the reduction of radiator cooling fan noise. But, most of those reports are associated with studies of air flow noise. A radiator cooling fan connected to a crankshaft occasionally radiates structure-borne noise in addition to air flow noise. This structure-borne noise is caused by fan blade vibration excited by torsional vibration of a crankshaft. In this paper, we surveyed the mechanism of the structure-borne noise and discussed some methods for the noise reduction. And, as a result, we developed one of the noise reduction technique aiming at isolation of crankshaft vibration by modifying viscosity of the oil in a fan clutch.
Technical Paper

A New Hydraulic Coupling Unit (HCU) for 4WD Vehicles

This year (1989) Mitsubishi Motors Corp. introduced, on some models, a newly-developed Hydraulic Coupling Uint (HCU), by which 2WD vehicles can be converted into 4WD ones in the same way as done by a viscous coupling (VC). This HCU is similar in the configuration to a vane pump: the oil discharge is returned to the suction chamber through a number of orifices. The rotor and cam ring (housing) are respectively connected to the two shafts; either of the one with the front wheels and the other with the rear wheels. Accordingly, it works as a slip-sensitive differential like a VC while it has a merit of progressive and parabolic torque-response characteristic, which offers stronger traction and acceleration capability and also minimizes tight-corner braking. This paper discusses primarily the configurations, functions and test results of the HCU and also presents an overview on further development possibilities of the 4WD system.
Technical Paper

Improvements of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Cold Startability of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines by New Injection-Rate-Control Pump

In order to investigate the effects of high injection pressure on engine performance and exhaust emissions, some experimental high injection pressure in-line pumps were made and tested. Increasing fuel spray momentum by high injection pressure could reduce smoke emission, but excessive increase in injection pressure was found not so effective in further reducing smoke emission. Accordingly, a high injection pressure should be accomplished within the low engine speed range a feature that has been very difficult to achieve for a conventional in-line pump. An electronic controlled injection-rate-control pump with a variable prestroke mechanism can provide higher injection pressure in low engine speed range and advances injection timing in high engine speed range. This pump can improve fuel economy in low engine speed range and emissions (smoke and particulate) over transient FTP for HDE's.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Spiral Bevel Gear Noise in 4-Wheel Drive Vehicle Transfer System

Mitsubishi Motors Corporation uses spiral bevel gears in the transfer system for 4-wheel drive passenger cars modified from the front wheel drive configuration. This transfer gear ratio is near 1:1, and gears have uniform depth teeth cutting by the continuous generating method of OERLIKON cutting machine. In this method, the cutter and the work rotations are timed together to accomplish continuous indexing and cutting in order to enable high productivity. In general, it is difficult to reduce the meshing noise of spiral bevel gears and control its quality. The authors established the tooth surface coordinates, to reduce the meshing noise, by studying the influence of tooth surface coordinates on the meshing transmission error (MTE).
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Cooling System Performance

This paper describes a method of predicting cooling performance in order to obtain the optimum design of the cooling system and front-end shape in the early stage of car development. This method consists of four calculation parts: thermal load on the cooling system, air flow through the engine compartment, heat dissipation by the heat exchangers and temperature distribution within the cooling system. It outputs the coolant, engine oil, automatic transmission fluid (A.T.F.) and charge air temperatures in exchange for the input of several car, power plant, drive train, exterior shape and cooling system specifications. For the calculations, in addition to theoretical formulas, several experimental formulas are introduced. This method verification is shown by presenting a few test cases for the respective calculation parts and the final solution.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence in Intake Port of MPI Engine on Fuel Transport Phenomena and Nonuniformity of Fuel/Air Mixing in Cylinder

Three zone mixture preparation model, assuming that fuel and air are distributed in three separate zones, fuel air and mixture zone, was proposed. Air Utilization Efficiency derived from the model was used to evaluate the mixing nonuniformity. Effect of the large scale nonisotropic turbulence downstream of the dimple or edge in the intake port of MPI engine on the convective mass transfer from fuel film was clarified by the proposed nondimensional index, Local Sherwood Number. It was found that when the fuel is injected toward the wall where large scale turbulence exists, almost all of the fuel is seeded in the air passing the region at the beginning of the intake process, resulting in the time-resolved nonuniformity of the mixture strength at the intake valve. Using the Air Utilization Efficiency, it was elucidated that time-resolved mixing nonuniformity at intake valves induces spatially nonuniform fuel/air distribution in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Engine Weight Reduction Using Alternative Light Materials

This paper presents several methods for reducing engine weight primarily through substitution with light-weight materials. The efficiency and performance of the engine were reviewed using a light-weight experimental engine (hereinafter called “weight-reduced engine”) constructed by the authors in order to investigate the possibility of practical use of the proposed weight reduction measures. The weight-reduced engine is based on an in-line 4-cylinder, 2.0 liter, gasoline engine with the base engine weight of 162 kg excluding engine oil and coolant and was reduced by 37 kg by applying alternative light-weight materiaLs and new manufacturing techniques. This corresponds to 23 % weight reduction. The materials used in the weight-reduced engine are 53 % steel, 33 % aluminum, 7 % plastics and 7 % other light-weight materials. It was found that by application of light-weight materials, the engine performance of the weight-reduced engine could be improved.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 20 Liter Diesel Engine

In the heavy-duty commercial vehicle market in Japan, particularly in the segment of dump trucks and tractors, naturally aspirated engines maintain a dominant market share because of their superior torque characteristics in the low speed range. In order to meet the ever increasing needs for higher speeds of transportation, better fuel economy and higher reliability, and the needs for increasingly strict exhaust emission regulations, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed the 8M20, a 20 liter V8 diesel engine. The '92 model series of “THE GREAT”, MMC's main heavy-duty trucks, has featured this new and powerful engine and has been in the market place since October, 1991. The 8M20 is a naturally aspirated engine that provides an output of 294kW/2200rpm, complying with the current Japanese exhaust emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Shot Peening and Grinding on Gear Strength

In recent year, higher strength for truck and bus transmission gear has become necessary. For the transmission gears, carburized gears have generally been used. We have examined the effects of shot peening and grinding using a CBN grindstone on the pitting strength and the bending fatigue strength of a carburized gear, and further evaluated a material which reduces the structual anomalies produced during carburization. As a result, it has been found that shot peening or CBN grinding is more effective for improving both pitting strength and bending fatigue strength than improving the material composition. Therefore, it is evident that residual compressive stress caused by shot peening or CBN grinding suppresses the propagation of cracks.
Technical Paper

Application to Body Parts of High-Strength Steel Sheet Containing Large Volume Fraction of Retained Austenite

Several different steel sheets were tested for energy absorption, using hat square columns and dynamic crash testing. Results indicate that steel sheets containing large volume fraction of retained austenite have relatively high energy absorption. The relationship between retained austenite and energy absorption was analyzed. These special steel sheets have already been successfully used for production body parts, such a front-side-member, without difficulties arising in volume production.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Fuel Injection System for Improvement of Engine Performance on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

With the intention of improving engine performance and emissions, the authors examined the influence of the method of initial fuel injection quantity reduction and of the injector configuration of a common rail fuel injection system on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Results showed that decreasing the nozzle hole diameter was an effective way to reduce the initial injection quantity without increasing black smoke. Compared to a three-way type injector, it was found that a two-way type injector can greatly reduce the amount of fuel leakage from the electromagnetic injector control valve and fuel consumption could be further improved by reduction of the driving loss. Furthermore, the increase of driving losses with higher injection pressure was small, and as a result, higher pressure injection was possible.
Technical Paper

Heat Flow on Disc Brakes

This paper describes an experimental analysis of frictional heat generated between the pads and rotors of disc brakes, to determine the paths and amounts of heat flow. The brakes were applied repeatedly at a constant initial speed, deceleration and interval until brake temperature became saturated. Under these conditions we measured an unsteady temperature distribution state during a single application of the brakes, and also a saturated (quasi-stationary) temperature distribution during repeated braking. Heat flow was studied in six paths: heat conduction to the pad; heat convection to the air from the friction areas of the inner and outer disc, from the ventilating parts and from the tube section of the rotor; and heat conduction to the rotor flange section.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Alloyed Steel to Diesel Engine Parts for Trucks and Buses

Applying micro-alloyed steel as a cost-effective method of forging engine parts eliminates quench and temper processes and saves energy. We have expanded this application to timing gears and crankshafts by changing the connecting rod material to carbon steel and vanadium, applied at the outset. Then, micro-alloyed steel treated with a soft nitriding process was used. Our recent studies have been focused on materials which exhibit both higher tensile strength and better machinability. This paper describes the results of applying different types of micro-alloyed steel to those engine parts.