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Technical Paper

Idling Stop System Coupled with Quick Start Features of Gasoline Direct Injection

The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper

Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixing for a Center-Spark Four-Valve Engine Employing the Concept of Barrel-Stratification

Flow and flame structure visualization and modeling were performed to clarify the characteristics of bulk flow, turbulence and mixing in a four-valve engine to adopt the lean combustion concept named “Barrel-Stratification” to the larger displacement center-spark four-valve engine. It was found that the partitions provided in the intake port and the tumble-control piston with a curved-top configuration were effective to enhance the lean combustion of such an engine. By these methods, the fuel distribution in the intake port and the in-cylinder bulk flow structure are optimized, so that the relatively rich mixture zone is arranged around the spark plug. The tumble-control piston also contributes to optimize the flow field structure after the distortion of tumble and to enable stable lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emission with New Water Injection System in a Diesel Engine

In this study a new water injection system was applied to an 11 liter naturally aspirated DI diesel engine in order to reduce exhaust emissions. In this system, the water and fuel were arranged in the injection nozzle during the time between injections as fuel, water and then fuel. The fuel and water were then injected into the cylinder in that order. The tests were conducted at several engine operating conditions from the Japanese 13 mode test cycle to clarify effects of water injection on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NOx reduction was directly proportional to the relative amount of water injection, regardless of engine speed and load. By using the optimal relative amount of water injection at each engine operating condition, total NOx and particulate matter (PM) in the Japanese 13 mode test cycle were reduced by 50% and 25%, respectively, without a fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Noise Crankcase Structure for Light Commercial Vehicle

To reduce diesel engine noise that is induced mainly by main bearing impact forces, two types of low noise concepts of basic crankcase structures were studied. One is the “Isolated Skirt Type”, which has the feature to suppress vibrations of engine surface by separating the crankcase skirt from the main bearing caps. The other is the “Bed Plate Type”, which embodies the feature to suppress vibrations by stiffening the lower part of crankcase by adopting a bed plate design. Dynamic characteristics of both prototypes were investigated by means of experimental modal testings such as double pulse laser holography system and impulsive hydraulic excitation test rig which simulates the exciting force of combustion gas pressure in cylinder. As the result of many experimental tests, it was concluded that the “Bed Plate Type” was advantageous over the “Isolated Skirt Type” in terms of engine noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Spray motion visualization, mixture strength measurement, flame spectral analyses and flame behavior observation were performed in order to elucidate the mixture preparation and the combustion processes in Mitsubishi GDI engine. The effects of in-cylinder flow called reverse tumble on the charge stratification were clarified. It preserves the mixture inside the spherical piston cavity, and extends the optimum injection timing range. Mixture strength at the spark plug and at the spark timing can be controlled by changing the injection timing. It was concluded that reverse tumble plays a significant role for extending the freedom of mixing. The characteristics of the stratified charge combustion were clarified through the flame radiation analyses. A first flame front with UV luminescence propagates rapidly and covers all over the combustion chamber at the early stage of combustion.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 19-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed a new V configured 8 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine (8M22T1) for the heavy-duty truck market. The engine is one of the first in its class to feature a common rail fuel injection system. This advanced engine management system was selected to meet the challenges of ever tightening emission regulation, specifically in the areas of smoke and noise. The 8M22T1 embodies a number of design innovations which have resulted in significant improvements in performance, fuel economy, durability and reliability.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Alloyed Steel to Diesel Engine Parts for Trucks and Buses

Applying micro-alloyed steel as a cost-effective method of forging engine parts eliminates quench and temper processes and saves energy. We have expanded this application to timing gears and crankshafts by changing the connecting rod material to carbon steel and vanadium, applied at the outset. Then, micro-alloyed steel treated with a soft nitriding process was used. Our recent studies have been focused on materials which exhibit both higher tensile strength and better machinability. This paper describes the results of applying different types of micro-alloyed steel to those engine parts.
Technical Paper

Mitsubishi New 12.0-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

To meet the increasingly strong demand for high-speed transportation, better fuel economy, higher reliability and the social requirements for more strict Japanese regulations against exhaust and noise emissions, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has recently developed the 6D40T1 in-line 6-cylinder, 12.0-liter turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine for heavy-duty trucks. This engine meets the 1989 Japanese exhaust emission regulations and has an output of 258 kW. To achieve both fuel economy and good drivability, Mitsubishi's original, electronically-controlled fuel injection system was adopted. The so-called prestroke-controlled fuel injection pump is capable of flexible and precise control of both fuel injection rate and timing. The basic structure of the 6D40T1 was designed with high rigidity to permit high cylinder pressures. In addition, to reduce friction and heat losses, a 4-valve design, roller cam followers with needle roller bearings, and shortened exhaust ports were adopted.
Technical Paper

IMEP Estimation from Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque Variation

Crankshaft torque fluctuation has been theoretically analyzed and possible sources of error have been reviewed in the cases of determining the indicated mean effective pressure (Pmi) from measurement of the flywheel angular-speed fluctuation. The specific objective of this study was to develop a new approach to determine Pmi from the crankshaft torque of a SI engine, and it has successfully proven that using an appropriate data processing for the angular-speed fluctuation, Pmi in low- to medium-speed ranges can be estimated with very high accuracy in terms of 99% or higher coefficient of correlation to the in-cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1991 U.S.A. Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Protection of the Earth's environment by means of energy saving and cleaning up of air pollution on a global scale is one of the most important subjects in the world today. Because of this, the requirements for better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have been getting stronger, and, in particular, simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) without degrading fuel economy has become a major subject. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MM) has been selling diesel-powered heavy-duty trucks in the U.S. market since 1985 and has agressively carried out development work for meeting the 1991 model year exhaust emission standards.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Fuel Transport Lag and Statistical Perturbation in Combustion to Oscillation of SI Engine Speed at Idle

Periodic oscillations of the speed of SI engine with MPI system at idle observed in the steady state and in the converging process after the inditial increase of load were investigated. These non-steady phenomena are the self-excitations of the closed-loop system induced by the lag factors inherent to the system such as the manifold charging delay and the fuel metering and transport lag and by the nonlinear factors such as the sensitivity of the torque to the equivalence ratio. But, even in the cases where the lags and the nonlinearity are insufficient, continuous oscillations with large amplitude are observed in the actual engine. They can be explained by introducing the concept of external perturbation induced by the combustion fluctuation. Disturbance prevents the phase lag in the system from converging, resulting in the continuation of oscillation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Mode Variable Valve Timing Engine

The 4-stroke SI engine offers better performance if its valve events can be varied depending on the operating conditions. Some engines in production are therefore incorporated with variable valve timing (VVT) mechanisms. All of such mechanisms available today however are for two-mode change-over between low-and high-speed operations. To achieve even better output and fuel economy, a new multi-mode VVT mechanism has been developed, featured by a unique hydraulic device for three-mode change-over as follows: Deactivate both intake and exhaust valves Select low-speed cam with moderate lifts and short durations Select high-speed cam with high lifts and long durations This mechanism enables shutting off unnecessary cylinders during low-speed cruise, or select optimum valve events during WOT acceleration over the entire engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Fan Noise Caused by Crankshaft Torsional Vibration

Improvements of interior and exterior noise are important targets in vehicle engineering. There are many reports concerning the reduction of radiator cooling fan noise. But, most of those reports are associated with studies of air flow noise. A radiator cooling fan connected to a crankshaft occasionally radiates structure-borne noise in addition to air flow noise. This structure-borne noise is caused by fan blade vibration excited by torsional vibration of a crankshaft. In this paper, we surveyed the mechanism of the structure-borne noise and discussed some methods for the noise reduction. And, as a result, we developed one of the noise reduction technique aiming at isolation of crankshaft vibration by modifying viscosity of the oil in a fan clutch.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1994 USA Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Recent global environmental problems which have come to light must be solved for ensuring the survival of the human race. And it is of the utmost importance that we give to our descendants a world full of nature and beauty. In the past years Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has long been positive in research and the development activities so as to satisfy the demands for low emission and good fuel economy vehicles. (1) As one example of our research efforts, the technology that will meet the US '94 HDDE exhaust emission regulations, which is one of the most stringent regulations in the world, is described in this paper. The exhaust emissions were reduced by improvement of combustion, using the pre-stroke control type fuel injection pump and optimizing the combustion chamber shape. Efforts were also made to improve the oil consumption, in order to reduce PM (Particulate Matter) emission.
Technical Paper

Concept of Lean Combustion by Barrel-Stratification

A novel leanburn concept, ‘Barrel-Stratification’ is proposed. Fuel is introduced into the cylinder through one of the intake ports of a dual-intake-valve engine of which the tumbling air motion is intensified by the sophisticated intake port design. Because the velocity component in the direction parallel to the axis of tumble is small, charge stratification realized during the intake stroke is maintained until the end of the compression stroke. By the effects of charge stratification and the turbulence enhancement by tumble, stable combustion is realized even at extremely lean conditions. The concept was verified by flow field analysis applying a multi-color laser sheet technique and the flame structure analysis employing the blue-end image intensification realized by the interference mirror and the short delay phosphor.
Technical Paper

Engine Weight Reduction Using Alternative Light Materials

This paper presents several methods for reducing engine weight primarily through substitution with light-weight materials. The efficiency and performance of the engine were reviewed using a light-weight experimental engine (hereinafter called “weight-reduced engine”) constructed by the authors in order to investigate the possibility of practical use of the proposed weight reduction measures. The weight-reduced engine is based on an in-line 4-cylinder, 2.0 liter, gasoline engine with the base engine weight of 162 kg excluding engine oil and coolant and was reduced by 37 kg by applying alternative light-weight materiaLs and new manufacturing techniques. This corresponds to 23 % weight reduction. The materials used in the weight-reduced engine are 53 % steel, 33 % aluminum, 7 % plastics and 7 % other light-weight materials. It was found that by application of light-weight materials, the engine performance of the weight-reduced engine could be improved.
Technical Paper

Effects of Various Methods for Improving Vehicle Startability and Transient Response of Turbocharged Diesel Trucks

To improve vehicle startability and transient response of turbocharged diesel trucks, their phenomena have been investigated and analyzed in detail and various supercharging systems have been developed and installed on a truck for comparison of their characteristics. The systems considered were ceramic, variable geometry, variable entry,and air-assisted turbochargers and a combined supercharging system. The variable entry turbocharger has two turbine scrolls with different nozzle areas and two switching valves to get three different turbine flow capacities. The combined supercharging system consists of a mechanical supercharger and a turbocharger. These are linked in series. Both work in a low engine speed range, and the turbocharger only works in middle and high engine speed ranges. Among these systems, the combined supercharging system is the best for improving both vehicle startability and transient response of a truck.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence in Intake Port of MPI Engine on Fuel Transport Phenomena and Nonuniformity of Fuel/Air Mixing in Cylinder

Three zone mixture preparation model, assuming that fuel and air are distributed in three separate zones, fuel air and mixture zone, was proposed. Air Utilization Efficiency derived from the model was used to evaluate the mixing nonuniformity. Effect of the large scale nonisotropic turbulence downstream of the dimple or edge in the intake port of MPI engine on the convective mass transfer from fuel film was clarified by the proposed nondimensional index, Local Sherwood Number. It was found that when the fuel is injected toward the wall where large scale turbulence exists, almost all of the fuel is seeded in the air passing the region at the beginning of the intake process, resulting in the time-resolved nonuniformity of the mixture strength at the intake valve. Using the Air Utilization Efficiency, it was elucidated that time-resolved mixing nonuniformity at intake valves induces spatially nonuniform fuel/air distribution in the cylinder.