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Technical Paper

Prediction of Occupant's Thermal Sensation under the Transient Environment in a Vehicle Compartment

New numerical simulation system and experimental evaluation system has been developed to predict and evaluate occupant's thermal sensation in a passenger compartment in which environment is not steady and not uniform. Transitional effective temperature, which is new index of thermal sensation, is proposed and verified to correspond with subjects' thermal sensation votes. The simulation system has two advantage beside the prediction of thermal sensation; automatic generation of a computational model and coupling analysis of temperature including an analysis of temperature distribution inside a cabin, refrigerating cycle, solar radiation, and so on. It was verified that this system well predicts occupant's thermal sensation in a short time.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of a Small Specialty Car

Aerodynamic drag reduction is one of the most important aspects of enhancing overall vehicle performance. Many car manufacturers have been working to establish drag reduction techniques. This paper describes the development process of a new small speciality car which achieved coefficient of drag(CD) of 0.25. A description of the test facilities and the systems used for developing the aerodynamic aspect of the car are also introduced briefly.
Technical Paper

Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixing for a Center-Spark Four-Valve Engine Employing the Concept of Barrel-Stratification

Flow and flame structure visualization and modeling were performed to clarify the characteristics of bulk flow, turbulence and mixing in a four-valve engine to adopt the lean combustion concept named “Barrel-Stratification” to the larger displacement center-spark four-valve engine. It was found that the partitions provided in the intake port and the tumble-control piston with a curved-top configuration were effective to enhance the lean combustion of such an engine. By these methods, the fuel distribution in the intake port and the in-cylinder bulk flow structure are optimized, so that the relatively rich mixture zone is arranged around the spark plug. The tumble-control piston also contributes to optimize the flow field structure after the distortion of tumble and to enable stable lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of Ovate Wire Helical Springs

This paper describes the results of the study and research on ovate wire helical springs which have been jointly conducted by the members of the Japan Society for Spring Research consisting of the engineers from material suppliers, wire and spring producers and automotive manufacturers as well as researchers at Japanese universities. Attention is focused particularly on two types of wire cross sections, typical elliptical shape and Fuchs' egg-shape. Stresses on these two cross sections were analyzed by numerical calculations within the range of practical specification, and then the results have been compared with those of round wire spring. As a result, it has been found that the elliptical wire spring is superior to Fuchs- egg-shaped one for general application. Simple designing methods for the both types of wire helical springs have been developed based on the findings from the stress analysis.
Technical Paper

Heat Flow on Disc Brakes

This paper describes an experimental analysis of frictional heat generated between the pads and rotors of disc brakes, to determine the paths and amounts of heat flow. The brakes were applied repeatedly at a constant initial speed, deceleration and interval until brake temperature became saturated. Under these conditions we measured an unsteady temperature distribution state during a single application of the brakes, and also a saturated (quasi-stationary) temperature distribution during repeated braking. Heat flow was studied in six paths: heat conduction to the pad; heat convection to the air from the friction areas of the inner and outer disc, from the ventilating parts and from the tube section of the rotor; and heat conduction to the rotor flange section.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence in Intake Port of MPI Engine on Fuel Transport Phenomena and Nonuniformity of Fuel/Air Mixing in Cylinder

Three zone mixture preparation model, assuming that fuel and air are distributed in three separate zones, fuel air and mixture zone, was proposed. Air Utilization Efficiency derived from the model was used to evaluate the mixing nonuniformity. Effect of the large scale nonisotropic turbulence downstream of the dimple or edge in the intake port of MPI engine on the convective mass transfer from fuel film was clarified by the proposed nondimensional index, Local Sherwood Number. It was found that when the fuel is injected toward the wall where large scale turbulence exists, almost all of the fuel is seeded in the air passing the region at the beginning of the intake process, resulting in the time-resolved nonuniformity of the mixture strength at the intake valve. Using the Air Utilization Efficiency, it was elucidated that time-resolved mixing nonuniformity at intake valves induces spatially nonuniform fuel/air distribution in the cylinder.