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Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Application to Body Parts of High-Strength Steel Sheet Containing Large Volume Fraction of Retained Austenite

Several different steel sheets were tested for energy absorption, using hat square columns and dynamic crash testing. Results indicate that steel sheets containing large volume fraction of retained austenite have relatively high energy absorption. The relationship between retained austenite and energy absorption was analyzed. These special steel sheets have already been successfully used for production body parts, such a front-side-member, without difficulties arising in volume production.
Technical Paper

Development of Damping SMC and Its Application as Material for a Rockercover

When replacing a metal engine part with plastic, it is necessary to regard vibration damping as one of the important factors in terms of noise reduction as well as strength and heat resistance as being characteristics of the material. Plastics are far better for vibration damping than steel or aluminum, but this property is reduced by the addition of glassfiber-reinforced or high heat-resisting resins. We have taken notice of SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) which has the excellent strength and heat resistance properties and studied it in order to increase its vibration damping property. Since organic polymers show the peak value for vibration damping performance in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), we studied a method to shift the Tg near the operating temperature region in order to improve the vibration damping property.
Technical Paper

Effects of Shot Peening and Grinding on Gear Strength

In recent year, higher strength for truck and bus transmission gear has become necessary. For the transmission gears, carburized gears have generally been used. We have examined the effects of shot peening and grinding using a CBN grindstone on the pitting strength and the bending fatigue strength of a carburized gear, and further evaluated a material which reduces the structual anomalies produced during carburization. As a result, it has been found that shot peening or CBN grinding is more effective for improving both pitting strength and bending fatigue strength than improving the material composition. Therefore, it is evident that residual compressive stress caused by shot peening or CBN grinding suppresses the propagation of cracks.
Technical Paper

Development of Austempered Ductile Iron Timing Gears

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material having excellent mechanical properties and damping capacity. However practical mass production of ADI gears has not been possible due to ADI's poor machinability and distortion during the austempering heat treatment. With a new process method of carrying out hobbing before austempering when the material is in its soft condition, then austempering it and lastly, conducting the shave finishing process, we have diminished the above defects and developed practical ADI gears. These new gears generate less noise than ordinary nitrocarburized steel gears and are superior in pitting resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Anti-Corrosion Steel Sheet Containing Copper for Automobile Body Parts

An investigation of anti-corrosion steel sheets (non-galvanized) which contain copper for automobile body parts has been conducted. Copper additives accelerate the formation of amorphous substrates. These substrates decrease the rate of corrosion. In order to retain the steel's formability and weldability, the contents of the alloying elements have been optimized. As a result, this newly developed steel sheet can be used for many different applications such as door sashes and door panels of mass produced cars. This paper describes the key properties of the newly developed steel sheet and additionally the mechanism of corrosion prevention, weldability, formability, and so on.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Alloyed Steel to Diesel Engine Parts for Trucks and Buses

Applying micro-alloyed steel as a cost-effective method of forging engine parts eliminates quench and temper processes and saves energy. We have expanded this application to timing gears and crankshafts by changing the connecting rod material to carbon steel and vanadium, applied at the outset. Then, micro-alloyed steel treated with a soft nitriding process was used. Our recent studies have been focused on materials which exhibit both higher tensile strength and better machinability. This paper describes the results of applying different types of micro-alloyed steel to those engine parts.
Technical Paper

Development of Titanium Alloy Valve Spring Retainers

Beta Ti alloy valve spring retainers are newly developed for use in mass produced automobiles for the first time. Ti alloy valve spring retainers vith a weight saving of 42%, compared to steel retainers, have reduced the inertial weight of the valve train components by 6%. And this weight reduction has the benefit of increasing the upper limit of the engine speed, which improves the engine performance. Ti alloy valve spring retainers are cold forged by the conventional fabrication facilities for steel retainers, using Ti-22V-4Al (the beta Ti alloy) which possesses excellent cold workability in a solution treated condition. Oxygen surface hardening is applied to protect Ti alloy valve spring retainers from wear damage. In addition, aging treatment and shot blasting are performed to improve strength and stiffness of valve retainers.
Technical Paper

A New Oxygen Storage Componented Oxygen Sensor for the Emission Reductions of the Three-Way Catalyst System

A new prototype oxygen storage componented oxygen sensor has been developed which shows significant emission reductions of a 3-way catalyst system. This sensor is composed of ceria, as an oxygen storage component and supported pellets as a buffer layer surrounding the protective coating of the sensor element. This sensor offers a more rapid response than conventional ones under lean and rich fuel mixture excursions, which is caused by CO or O2 electrode poisoning.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Tappets Cast in Aluminum Alloy for Diesel Engines

The authors developed, for use in diesel engines, ceramic tappets cast in aluminum alloy that drastically improved wear resistance and valve train dynamics. The ceramic tappets consist of two parts: a ceramic head, which contacts the cam and push rod, and a tappet body made of aluminum alloy. Concerning the ceramic, silicon nitride was the best material of the three ceramics evaluated in the tests and the sliding surface, in contact with the cam and push rod, was left unground. As for the aluminum alloy, hyper-eutectic aluminum-silicon alloy with a controlled pro-eutectic silicon size was selected. A reliability analysis using the finite-element method (FEM) was also made on the structure of the ceramic tappet for enhanced durability and reliability. The combination of this tappet and a cam made of hardened ductile cast iron, hardened steel, or chilled cast iron, respectively exhibits excellent wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Hot-Gas Spin Testing of Ceramic Turbine Rotor at TIT 1300° C

The high-temperature durability of 85 mm tip diameter silicon nitride ceramic radial turbine rotors was evaluated with a hot gas spin test rig. The rotors withstood up to a turbine tip speed of 700 m/s at TIT of 1300°C under partially loaded conditions and 570 m/s at TIT of 1300°C under fully loaded conditions, respectively. The material of the rotors was a post-HIPed silicon nitride. The basic fatigue properties of the material were measured at high temperatures. In the hot gas spin test, the temperature and stress distributions at the turbine blade were calculated with a finite element method. The results of the hot-gas spin test are discussed by means of a failure prediction analysis on the basis of the Weibull statistics.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stainless Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

At Mitsubishi Motors, a thin-walled exhaust manifold, made of stainless cast-steel, has been developed with the aim of achieving higher heat-resisting reliability as well as weight reduction. The new exhaust manifold is made of ferritic stainless cast-steel, employing an advanced vacuum casting (CLAS). Its geometry was designed using finite element analysis and its durability was confirmed by testing both on various test devices and on a vehicle. The exhaust manifolds has been adopted on a production engine model and has proven the following advantages over a conventional cast-iron ones; excellent heat resistance. weight reduction of over 20%. possible exhaust emission reduction as a result of lower heat-capacity of the exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

Energy Absorption by the Plastic Deformation of Body Structural Members

Vehicle energy in head-on or rear-end collisions is mainly absorbed by the front or rear longitudinal members. This paper describes the methods of calculation of crush load and the energy absorbed during the static and dynamic crush of the sheet metal members with closed-hat section together with attached flanges or walls. Calculated results were compared with experiments including full-size automobile collisions. It is expected that the analysis considering the strain rate sensitivity will provide more accurate design information for improved automobile crash-worthiness.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Torsional Rubber Damper for Diesel Engines

It is well-known that double-mass torsional rubber dampers which have two masses and springs in parallel are effective for controlling torsional vibration characteristics over a wide range of engine speed. On the occasion of reliability estimation of the rubber dampers, it is important to consider generation of heat in the rubber due to torsional vibration. By predicting generation of heat at the designing stage, optimum design of the torsional rubber dampers can be achieved. By development and application of this prediction method, a new type double-mass damper was developed. It provided higher vibration control characteristics and reliability than conventional viscous dampers, and also it provided advantages in terms of noise, productivity and weight.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Simulation of a Head Form Impact Against Plastic Plates

A Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation was conducted to predict energy-absorbing characteristics in an impact of a head form against plastic plates. Static and dynamic material tests were conducted in order to determine material properties of the plastics. The properties were applied in an explicit FEM code. The FEM results were validated through the impact tests by the head form against the same plastic plates. It was proved that the FEM could simulate the test result well, when the precise material properties were introduced in the simulation. The method can be expected to be available to predict energy-absorbing characteristics during the impact by the head form against automobile plastic components such as shell portions of instrument panels.
Technical Paper

Engine Weight Reduction Using Alternative Light Materials

This paper presents several methods for reducing engine weight primarily through substitution with light-weight materials. The efficiency and performance of the engine were reviewed using a light-weight experimental engine (hereinafter called “weight-reduced engine”) constructed by the authors in order to investigate the possibility of practical use of the proposed weight reduction measures. The weight-reduced engine is based on an in-line 4-cylinder, 2.0 liter, gasoline engine with the base engine weight of 162 kg excluding engine oil and coolant and was reduced by 37 kg by applying alternative light-weight materiaLs and new manufacturing techniques. This corresponds to 23 % weight reduction. The materials used in the weight-reduced engine are 53 % steel, 33 % aluminum, 7 % plastics and 7 % other light-weight materials. It was found that by application of light-weight materials, the engine performance of the weight-reduced engine could be improved.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Tire Deformation on Ride Comfort of a Truck

When truck tires have a deformation such as radial runout, flat spot, and abnormal wear as a result of panic braking, they affect vehicle vibration in the form of displacement input whose spectrum involves higher order terms of tire revolution. While a truck has vibration modes of frame bending as well as pitching and unsprung-mass viberation in the input frequency range, the tire displacement input induces vehicle vibration as a combination of these modes. Results of calculations and experiments of a 4x2 medium-duty truck are analyzed and an example of means for improving ride comfort is described in this paper.