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Technical Paper

Combustion Control Technologies for Direct Injection SI Engine

Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting up-right straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electro-magnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Control Systems that Improve Three Way Catalyst Conversion Efficiency

A fuel control method to reduce the harmful exhaust gas from SI engines is proposed. As is well known, both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle in a conventional air-fuel ratio control system are determined uniquely by parameters in the system. And this limits our making full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. A simple model of TWC reaction revealed the relationship between maximum conversion efficiency and both the amplitude and the frequency in a air fuel control system. It also revealed that TWC conversion efficiency attained to maximum levels when both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle are selected so as to make full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to vary both the amplitude and the frequency arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

IMEP Estimation from Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque Variation

Crankshaft torque fluctuation has been theoretically analyzed and possible sources of error have been reviewed in the cases of determining the indicated mean effective pressure (Pmi) from measurement of the flywheel angular-speed fluctuation. The specific objective of this study was to develop a new approach to determine Pmi from the crankshaft torque of a SI engine, and it has successfully proven that using an appropriate data processing for the angular-speed fluctuation, Pmi in low- to medium-speed ranges can be estimated with very high accuracy in terms of 99% or higher coefficient of correlation to the in-cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Fuel Transport Lag and Statistical Perturbation in Combustion to Oscillation of SI Engine Speed at Idle

Periodic oscillations of the speed of SI engine with MPI system at idle observed in the steady state and in the converging process after the inditial increase of load were investigated. These non-steady phenomena are the self-excitations of the closed-loop system induced by the lag factors inherent to the system such as the manifold charging delay and the fuel metering and transport lag and by the nonlinear factors such as the sensitivity of the torque to the equivalence ratio. But, even in the cases where the lags and the nonlinearity are insufficient, continuous oscillations with large amplitude are observed in the actual engine. They can be explained by introducing the concept of external perturbation induced by the combustion fluctuation. Disturbance prevents the phase lag in the system from converging, resulting in the continuation of oscillation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Mode Variable Valve Timing Engine

The 4-stroke SI engine offers better performance if its valve events can be varied depending on the operating conditions. Some engines in production are therefore incorporated with variable valve timing (VVT) mechanisms. All of such mechanisms available today however are for two-mode change-over between low-and high-speed operations. To achieve even better output and fuel economy, a new multi-mode VVT mechanism has been developed, featured by a unique hydraulic device for three-mode change-over as follows: Deactivate both intake and exhaust valves Select low-speed cam with moderate lifts and short durations Select high-speed cam with high lifts and long durations This mechanism enables shutting off unnecessary cylinders during low-speed cruise, or select optimum valve events during WOT acceleration over the entire engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Influence of Valve Noise on Knock Detection in Spark Ignition Engines

Valve noise is one of the factors that deteriorate the signal-to-noise ratio in the detection of combustion knock in spark ignition engines by means of a knock control system with a conventional knock sensor and a higher frequency band-pass filter. It was determined that one of the principal mechanisms of valve noise increase is the eccentricity between the valve seat face and the insert seat face at valve contact in addition to excess valve contact speed. One of the reasons for this eccentricity is the offset between the centers of the valve guide and insert caused by cylinder head distortion due to fastening of the cylinder head and thermal distortion of the insert. Other reasons include excess clearance caused by the abrasion of the valve guide and stem, and valve tilt increase caused by inherent valve spring bend.
Technical Paper

Concept of Lean Combustion by Barrel-Stratification

A novel leanburn concept, ‘Barrel-Stratification’ is proposed. Fuel is introduced into the cylinder through one of the intake ports of a dual-intake-valve engine of which the tumbling air motion is intensified by the sophisticated intake port design. Because the velocity component in the direction parallel to the axis of tumble is small, charge stratification realized during the intake stroke is maintained until the end of the compression stroke. By the effects of charge stratification and the turbulence enhancement by tumble, stable combustion is realized even at extremely lean conditions. The concept was verified by flow field analysis applying a multi-color laser sheet technique and the flame structure analysis employing the blue-end image intensification realized by the interference mirror and the short delay phosphor.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Rocker Arm Insert for Internal Combustion Engines

The adoption of the diesel engine EGR systems, and increased uses of alcohol in spark ignited engines require wear resistant and low maintenance valve trains. Silicon nitride ceramic inserts were pressureless-sintered and successfully die-cast in rocker arms contacting the overhead cams in the valve trains. As fired, the insert sliding surface was fine and precise, eliminating any further processing. The comosite structure was machined with the sliding surface as a reference plane. Beside inherent high wear resistance, these lighter inserts reduced inertial forces of the trains and the torque required to drive the cams. The hard, brittle ceramics and a softer, more elastic aluminum alloy made the structure more durable and reliable. The process of development includes characterization, screening, manufacturing and quality control of the materials, and determination of wear resistance and reliability for this new structure.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Two-stage Hybrid Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

Two-stage hybrid combustion for a 6-stroke gasoline direct injection SI engine is a new strategy to control the ignition of the HCCI combustion using hot-burned gas from the stratified lean SI combustion. This combustion is achieved by changing the camshafts, the cam-driven gear ratio and the engine control of a conventional 4-stroke gasoline direct injection engine without using a higher compression ratio, any fuel additives and induction air heating devices. The combustion processes are performed twice in one cycle. After the gas exchange process, the stratified ultra-lean SI combustion is performed. The hot-burned gas generated from this SI combustion is used as a trigger for the next HCCI combustion. After gasoline is injected in the burned gas, the hot and homogeneous lean mixture is recompressed without opening the exhaust valves. Thus the HCCI combustion occurs.
Journal Article

Keys to Understanding Spray-guided Combustion of a Narrow-spacing Gasoline Direct Injection SI Engine with a Centrally Mounted Multi-hole Injector

Spray-guided gasoline direct injection SI engines attract as one of new generation lean-burn engines to promise CO2 reduction. These typically adopt “narrow-spacing” concept in which an injector is centrally mounted close to a spark plug. Therefore, geometric targets of the fuel spray and a position of the spark plug have to be exactly limited to maintain a proper mixture in the spark gap. In addition, the stable combustion window is narrow because the spark ignition is limited in a short time during and immediately after the injection. These spatial and temporal restrictions involve some intractable problems concerning the combustion robustness due to the complicate phenomena around the spark plug. The local mixture preparation near the spark plug significantly depends on the spray-induced charge motion. The intense flow induced by the motion blows out and stretches the spark, thereby affecting the spark discharge performance.