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Technical Paper

Development of Austempered Ductile Iron Timing Gears

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material having excellent mechanical properties and damping capacity. However practical mass production of ADI gears has not been possible due to ADI's poor machinability and distortion during the austempering heat treatment. With a new process method of carrying out hobbing before austempering when the material is in its soft condition, then austempering it and lastly, conducting the shave finishing process, we have diminished the above defects and developed practical ADI gears. These new gears generate less noise than ordinary nitrocarburized steel gears and are superior in pitting resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of thermoplastic elastomeric vacuum hose for engine control

Vulcanized rubber hoses are difficult to recycle and have a complicated manufacturing process. Recently, we have developed the vacuum hose for engine control out of thermoplastic elastomers. As a result of this development, scrap material from the manufacturing process can be recycled and, in addition, about a 30 percent weight reduction and a 20 percent cost reduction are achievable by virtue of the lower specific gravity and by the more simplified manufacturing process. In order to assess the feasibility of using thermoplastic elastomers for vacuum hoses, we developed a heat aging simulation test method. This was achieved by first investigating the actual vehicle environmental conditions of currently used vacuum hoses by retrieving and examining these hoses from used vehicles. We then extrapolated what the condition of such hoses would be after being subjected to heat aging for 200,000 km of service in an actual vehicle, and applied this calculation to our newly developed hoses.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

A New Oxygen Storage Componented Oxygen Sensor for the Emission Reductions of the Three-Way Catalyst System

A new prototype oxygen storage componented oxygen sensor has been developed which shows significant emission reductions of a 3-way catalyst system. This sensor is composed of ceria, as an oxygen storage component and supported pellets as a buffer layer surrounding the protective coating of the sensor element. This sensor offers a more rapid response than conventional ones under lean and rich fuel mixture excursions, which is caused by CO or O2 electrode poisoning.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Fan Noise Caused by Crankshaft Torsional Vibration

Improvements of interior and exterior noise are important targets in vehicle engineering. There are many reports concerning the reduction of radiator cooling fan noise. But, most of those reports are associated with studies of air flow noise. A radiator cooling fan connected to a crankshaft occasionally radiates structure-borne noise in addition to air flow noise. This structure-borne noise is caused by fan blade vibration excited by torsional vibration of a crankshaft. In this paper, we surveyed the mechanism of the structure-borne noise and discussed some methods for the noise reduction. And, as a result, we developed one of the noise reduction technique aiming at isolation of crankshaft vibration by modifying viscosity of the oil in a fan clutch.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Spiral Bevel Gear Noise in 4-Wheel Drive Vehicle Transfer System

Mitsubishi Motors Corporation uses spiral bevel gears in the transfer system for 4-wheel drive passenger cars modified from the front wheel drive configuration. This transfer gear ratio is near 1:1, and gears have uniform depth teeth cutting by the continuous generating method of OERLIKON cutting machine. In this method, the cutter and the work rotations are timed together to accomplish continuous indexing and cutting in order to enable high productivity. In general, it is difficult to reduce the meshing noise of spiral bevel gears and control its quality. The authors established the tooth surface coordinates, to reduce the meshing noise, by studying the influence of tooth surface coordinates on the meshing transmission error (MTE).
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Cooling System Performance

This paper describes a method of predicting cooling performance in order to obtain the optimum design of the cooling system and front-end shape in the early stage of car development. This method consists of four calculation parts: thermal load on the cooling system, air flow through the engine compartment, heat dissipation by the heat exchangers and temperature distribution within the cooling system. It outputs the coolant, engine oil, automatic transmission fluid (A.T.F.) and charge air temperatures in exchange for the input of several car, power plant, drive train, exterior shape and cooling system specifications. For the calculations, in addition to theoretical formulas, several experimental formulas are introduced. This method verification is shown by presenting a few test cases for the respective calculation parts and the final solution.
Technical Paper

Engine Weight Reduction Using Alternative Light Materials

This paper presents several methods for reducing engine weight primarily through substitution with light-weight materials. The efficiency and performance of the engine were reviewed using a light-weight experimental engine (hereinafter called “weight-reduced engine”) constructed by the authors in order to investigate the possibility of practical use of the proposed weight reduction measures. The weight-reduced engine is based on an in-line 4-cylinder, 2.0 liter, gasoline engine with the base engine weight of 162 kg excluding engine oil and coolant and was reduced by 37 kg by applying alternative light-weight materiaLs and new manufacturing techniques. This corresponds to 23 % weight reduction. The materials used in the weight-reduced engine are 53 % steel, 33 % aluminum, 7 % plastics and 7 % other light-weight materials. It was found that by application of light-weight materials, the engine performance of the weight-reduced engine could be improved.
Technical Paper

Development of Hard Sintered Tappet and New Testing Method

We have developed a tappet with a cam lobe contacting tip made of a hard sintered material whose base material is cobalt, which adheres less to the steel of camshafts, and which also contains fine particles of tungsten carbide and chrome carbide. We have established a new evaluation method to access wear resistance performance of the tappet. It enables us to measure directly the friction force generated between the cam lobe and tappet and to evaluate anti-scuffing performance with high accuracy because we can clarify the time, load and cam angle at which scuffing occures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Shot Peening and Grinding on Gear Strength

In recent year, higher strength for truck and bus transmission gear has become necessary. For the transmission gears, carburized gears have generally been used. We have examined the effects of shot peening and grinding using a CBN grindstone on the pitting strength and the bending fatigue strength of a carburized gear, and further evaluated a material which reduces the structual anomalies produced during carburization. As a result, it has been found that shot peening or CBN grinding is more effective for improving both pitting strength and bending fatigue strength than improving the material composition. Therefore, it is evident that residual compressive stress caused by shot peening or CBN grinding suppresses the propagation of cracks.
Technical Paper

Application to Body Parts of High-Strength Steel Sheet Containing Large Volume Fraction of Retained Austenite

Several different steel sheets were tested for energy absorption, using hat square columns and dynamic crash testing. Results indicate that steel sheets containing large volume fraction of retained austenite have relatively high energy absorption. The relationship between retained austenite and energy absorption was analyzed. These special steel sheets have already been successfully used for production body parts, such a front-side-member, without difficulties arising in volume production.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of Ovate Wire Helical Springs

This paper describes the results of the study and research on ovate wire helical springs which have been jointly conducted by the members of the Japan Society for Spring Research consisting of the engineers from material suppliers, wire and spring producers and automotive manufacturers as well as researchers at Japanese universities. Attention is focused particularly on two types of wire cross sections, typical elliptical shape and Fuchs' egg-shape. Stresses on these two cross sections were analyzed by numerical calculations within the range of practical specification, and then the results have been compared with those of round wire spring. As a result, it has been found that the elliptical wire spring is superior to Fuchs- egg-shaped one for general application. Simple designing methods for the both types of wire helical springs have been developed based on the findings from the stress analysis.