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Technical Paper

Development of Austempered Ductile Iron Timing Gears

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material having excellent mechanical properties and damping capacity. However practical mass production of ADI gears has not been possible due to ADI's poor machinability and distortion during the austempering heat treatment. With a new process method of carrying out hobbing before austempering when the material is in its soft condition, then austempering it and lastly, conducting the shave finishing process, we have diminished the above defects and developed practical ADI gears. These new gears generate less noise than ordinary nitrocarburized steel gears and are superior in pitting resistance.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of Ovate Wire Helical Springs

This paper describes the results of the study and research on ovate wire helical springs which have been jointly conducted by the members of the Japan Society for Spring Research consisting of the engineers from material suppliers, wire and spring producers and automotive manufacturers as well as researchers at Japanese universities. Attention is focused particularly on two types of wire cross sections, typical elliptical shape and Fuchs' egg-shape. Stresses on these two cross sections were analyzed by numerical calculations within the range of practical specification, and then the results have been compared with those of round wire spring. As a result, it has been found that the elliptical wire spring is superior to Fuchs- egg-shaped one for general application. Simple designing methods for the both types of wire helical springs have been developed based on the findings from the stress analysis.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Spiral Bevel Gear Noise in 4-Wheel Drive Vehicle Transfer System

Mitsubishi Motors Corporation uses spiral bevel gears in the transfer system for 4-wheel drive passenger cars modified from the front wheel drive configuration. This transfer gear ratio is near 1:1, and gears have uniform depth teeth cutting by the continuous generating method of OERLIKON cutting machine. In this method, the cutter and the work rotations are timed together to accomplish continuous indexing and cutting in order to enable high productivity. In general, it is difficult to reduce the meshing noise of spiral bevel gears and control its quality. The authors established the tooth surface coordinates, to reduce the meshing noise, by studying the influence of tooth surface coordinates on the meshing transmission error (MTE).
Technical Paper

Development of thermoplastic elastomeric vacuum hose for engine control

Vulcanized rubber hoses are difficult to recycle and have a complicated manufacturing process. Recently, we have developed the vacuum hose for engine control out of thermoplastic elastomers. As a result of this development, scrap material from the manufacturing process can be recycled and, in addition, about a 30 percent weight reduction and a 20 percent cost reduction are achievable by virtue of the lower specific gravity and by the more simplified manufacturing process. In order to assess the feasibility of using thermoplastic elastomers for vacuum hoses, we developed a heat aging simulation test method. This was achieved by first investigating the actual vehicle environmental conditions of currently used vacuum hoses by retrieving and examining these hoses from used vehicles. We then extrapolated what the condition of such hoses would be after being subjected to heat aging for 200,000 km of service in an actual vehicle, and applied this calculation to our newly developed hoses.