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Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

Booming noise analysis of passenger car using integrated approach of CAT/CAE

The need of lightweight vehicle design is motivated by the recent global trend of less fuel consumption and lower emission in vehicle. However in NVH development of vehicle, it becomes more difficult for the lightweight vehicle to reach low vibro-acoustic sensitivity than, for the heavy weight one to do so. Inthis environment, this paper describes about the practical finite element (FE) modeling of vehicle structure and acoustics, in order to predict "boom" response to powertrain excitation. The FE modeling process through validation and updating with experimental mode makes, the accumulation of considerable expertise for improving prediction accuracy, possible. FE analysis based on this modeling process is so useful for predicting "boom" levels up to 200 Hz. Using the result of FE analysis, structural optimization is executed in order to improve "boom" level of 80 Hz.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Occupant's Thermal Sensation under the Transient Environment in a Vehicle Compartment

New numerical simulation system and experimental evaluation system has been developed to predict and evaluate occupant's thermal sensation in a passenger compartment in which environment is not steady and not uniform. Transitional effective temperature, which is new index of thermal sensation, is proposed and verified to correspond with subjects' thermal sensation votes. The simulation system has two advantage beside the prediction of thermal sensation; automatic generation of a computational model and coupling analysis of temperature including an analysis of temperature distribution inside a cabin, refrigerating cycle, solar radiation, and so on. It was verified that this system well predicts occupant's thermal sensation in a short time.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of the Active Yaw Moment Control

This paper presents a new torque distribution system-“Right/Left Torque Control System”, aimed at improving a vehicle's cornering properties by using yaw moment control. The torque transfer mechanisms of this system have been analyzed. Also, a yaw moment control algorithm using yaw rate feedback control has been designed. Next, vehicle cornering properties were evaluated using numerical simulation developed from data taken from an actual vehicle. As a result, improvements were achieved in the maneuverability and stability of a vehicle during cornering.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Dent Resistance of Automobile Body Panels

Optimizing the design of automobile outer panels for weight reductions requires a consideration of stiffness and dent resistance. This paper presents a finite element analysis method for predicting the dent resistance of automobile body panels. The method is based on elastoplasticity analysis and nonlinear contact analysis. The analysis shows that dent resistance is greatly influenced not only by the stress-strain curve of the formed panel but also by the residual stress in the panel. An increase in yield stress improves dent resistance. The computed results obtained with this method compare favorably with experimental data, thereby validating this approach.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stiffness of Truck Door Panel Effective Arrangement of Stiffeners for Improving Stiffness

Since it is more difficult for truck door panels to realize curvature than passenger car door panels, internal stiffeners are mounted between the outer panel and inner panel through the use of an adhesive for ensuring stiffness. For this reason, a problem occurs as to the proper placement of the stiffeners so as to effectively improve stiffness. By FEM prediction and experimentation, the following have been clarified: (1) Arrangement of stiffeners for effectively improving stiffness (2) Stiffness share of stiffeners and outer panel against stiffness
Technical Paper

Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixing for a Center-Spark Four-Valve Engine Employing the Concept of Barrel-Stratification

Flow and flame structure visualization and modeling were performed to clarify the characteristics of bulk flow, turbulence and mixing in a four-valve engine to adopt the lean combustion concept named “Barrel-Stratification” to the larger displacement center-spark four-valve engine. It was found that the partitions provided in the intake port and the tumble-control piston with a curved-top configuration were effective to enhance the lean combustion of such an engine. By these methods, the fuel distribution in the intake port and the in-cylinder bulk flow structure are optimized, so that the relatively rich mixture zone is arranged around the spark plug. The tumble-control piston also contributes to optimize the flow field structure after the distortion of tumble and to enable stable lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Wind Throb Using CFD and Flow Visualization

Passenger cars with sunroofs sometimes experience a low frequency pulsation noise called “wind throb” when traveling with the roof open. This “wind throb” should be suppressed because it is an unpleasant noise which can adversely affect the acoustic environment inside a car. In this paper, 3-dimensional numerical flow analysis is applied around a car body to investigate the wind throb phenomenon. The computational scheme and the modeling method of the car body is first described. A flow visualization test in a water tunnel was completed for the simple car body shape to compare against the numerical procedure. The numerical and the visualized results compared well and the numerical simulation method employed was considered to be a reliable tool to analyze the wind throb phenomenon. Calculated results of pressure and vorticity distribution in the sunroof opening were analyzed with the spectrum of pressure fluctuation at the sunroof opening with and without a deflector.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Location Achieved with a Curve Catalytic Honeycomb Substrate

A new type of catalytic converter has been developed for the coming TLEV (Transitional Low Emission Vehicle) standards. It is a “Front Curve Catalytic Converter (FCCC)” using a curved cordierite ceramic honeycomb substrate. During this development, an optimum location and volume of the front curve catalytic converter were determined from the view points of thermal deterioration of the catalyst and hydrocarbon conversion performance. Based on CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) analysis, the best curvature radius of the substrate was selected to minimize a pressure drop of the front curve catalytic converter. The emission conversion and light-off performances of the front curve catalytic converter were compared with a conventional straight design. A series of durability tests; hot vibration, engine dynamometer and vehicle fleet tests were also conducted to confirm the reliability of the new front curve catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Engines for the 21st Century

During next decade, automotive engineers will take up unprecedented challenges to meet a variety of technical demands on passenger cars. While performance, refinement and reliability will continue to be major technical goals of passenger cars, reducing their impact on the environment not only in urban areas but also on the global basis will become an increasingly urgent issue. In addition, the need for energy and resources saving will necessitate development of more fuel efficient cars, exploitation of alternative energy and recycled materials. In this paper, the authors will review various alternative engines as candidates to satisfy the above demands. The authors will also discuss various alternative transportation energy sources such as alcoholic fuels, natural gas, hydrogen and electricity. Finally the trends of future passenger car engine design will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Tappets Cast in Aluminum Alloy for Diesel Engines

The authors developed, for use in diesel engines, ceramic tappets cast in aluminum alloy that drastically improved wear resistance and valve train dynamics. The ceramic tappets consist of two parts: a ceramic head, which contacts the cam and push rod, and a tappet body made of aluminum alloy. Concerning the ceramic, silicon nitride was the best material of the three ceramics evaluated in the tests and the sliding surface, in contact with the cam and push rod, was left unground. As for the aluminum alloy, hyper-eutectic aluminum-silicon alloy with a controlled pro-eutectic silicon size was selected. A reliability analysis using the finite-element method (FEM) was also made on the structure of the ceramic tappet for enhanced durability and reliability. The combination of this tappet and a cam made of hardened ductile cast iron, hardened steel, or chilled cast iron, respectively exhibits excellent wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Control Method of Autonomous Vehicle Considering Compatibility of Riding Comfort and Vehicle Controllability

This paper describes a control strategy for autonomous vehicles in an intelligent vehicle/highway system. The control concept aims at the compatibility of passenger riding comfort and vehicle controllability. The main subject of this paper is lateral control of vehicles. In order to analyze riding comfort, we have experimented on the lateral riding comfort during a lane change. It was found that the riding comfort is mainly related to the jerk more than the acceleration, and that the trajectory pattern is important. According to the experimental results, a motion control system was designed. We found through the computer simulation and the experiment with an autonomous test vehicle that comfortable ride is realized along with system stability. Lastly, in order to apply this strategy to the longitudinal direction, we have experimented on the longitudinal acceleration with the test vehicle. The results shows that the same strategy is applicable to the longitudinal direction.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Idling Rattle Noise in Trucks

Optimization of the clutch torsional characteristics is one of the effective methods to reduce the idling rattle noise. Many researches on th.s problem have been reported, but only few of them give sufficient consideration to the drag torque applied to the clutch disc during engine idling. This paper pays attention to the drag torque and discusses the mechanism of idling rattle noise by using vehicle testing, bench test with rotating torsional exciter and computer simulation. Reauction of Idling
Technical Paper

Contribution of Fuel Transport Lag and Statistical Perturbation in Combustion to Oscillation of SI Engine Speed at Idle

Periodic oscillations of the speed of SI engine with MPI system at idle observed in the steady state and in the converging process after the inditial increase of load were investigated. These non-steady phenomena are the self-excitations of the closed-loop system induced by the lag factors inherent to the system such as the manifold charging delay and the fuel metering and transport lag and by the nonlinear factors such as the sensitivity of the torque to the equivalence ratio. But, even in the cases where the lags and the nonlinearity are insufficient, continuous oscillations with large amplitude are observed in the actual engine. They can be explained by introducing the concept of external perturbation induced by the combustion fluctuation. Disturbance prevents the phase lag in the system from converging, resulting in the continuation of oscillation.
Technical Paper

Hot-Gas Spin Testing of Ceramic Turbine Rotor at TIT 1300° C

The high-temperature durability of 85 mm tip diameter silicon nitride ceramic radial turbine rotors was evaluated with a hot gas spin test rig. The rotors withstood up to a turbine tip speed of 700 m/s at TIT of 1300°C under partially loaded conditions and 570 m/s at TIT of 1300°C under fully loaded conditions, respectively. The material of the rotors was a post-HIPed silicon nitride. The basic fatigue properties of the material were measured at high temperatures. In the hot gas spin test, the temperature and stress distributions at the turbine blade were calculated with a finite element method. The results of the hot-gas spin test are discussed by means of a failure prediction analysis on the basis of the Weibull statistics.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stainless Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

At Mitsubishi Motors, a thin-walled exhaust manifold, made of stainless cast-steel, has been developed with the aim of achieving higher heat-resisting reliability as well as weight reduction. The new exhaust manifold is made of ferritic stainless cast-steel, employing an advanced vacuum casting (CLAS). Its geometry was designed using finite element analysis and its durability was confirmed by testing both on various test devices and on a vehicle. The exhaust manifolds has been adopted on a production engine model and has proven the following advantages over a conventional cast-iron ones; excellent heat resistance. weight reduction of over 20%. possible exhaust emission reduction as a result of lower heat-capacity of the exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

A Study on Adaptive Automatic Transmission Control

Various parameters for the shift scheduling of an automatic transmission were examined to detect more accurate road conditions, vehicle running conditions, and the driver's intention. The parameters include the vehicle speed, the gradient of a road, an index to curves in the road, and so on. The fuzzy logic was employed to incorporate these parameters into the shift scheduling control. The vehicle running tests have shown that the use of many parameters and the fuzzy logic was effective on reducing the frequencies of the transmission gear shift and the driver's brake operation in such road conditions as usually seen in mountainous areas
Technical Paper

Analysis of Torsional Stiffness Share Rate of Truck Frame

In order to design a well-balanced truck frame, optimization of not only the stiffness of the entire body and stress of each member, but also the internal force of each member is necessary, including the effect of a rear body mounted on the frame. This paper proposes a new parameter, “torsional stiffness share rate,” that directly correlates the contribution of member torsional stiffness to frame torsional stiffness with the internal force of the members as to torsion of the truck frame. The merits of the torsional stiffness share rate are shown in comparison with the strain energy share rate and the stiffness contribution rate. The results of experimental and FEM analyses of the torsional stiffness share rate are also presented.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of Ovate Wire Helical Springs

This paper describes the results of the study and research on ovate wire helical springs which have been jointly conducted by the members of the Japan Society for Spring Research consisting of the engineers from material suppliers, wire and spring producers and automotive manufacturers as well as researchers at Japanese universities. Attention is focused particularly on two types of wire cross sections, typical elliptical shape and Fuchs' egg-shape. Stresses on these two cross sections were analyzed by numerical calculations within the range of practical specification, and then the results have been compared with those of round wire spring. As a result, it has been found that the elliptical wire spring is superior to Fuchs- egg-shaped one for general application. Simple designing methods for the both types of wire helical springs have been developed based on the findings from the stress analysis.