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Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0344
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Occupant's Thermal Sensation under the Transient Environment in a Vehicle Compartment

2001-03-05
2001-01-0586
New numerical simulation system and experimental evaluation system has been developed to predict and evaluate occupant's thermal sensation in a passenger compartment in which environment is not steady and not uniform. Transitional effective temperature, which is new index of thermal sensation, is proposed and verified to correspond with subjects' thermal sensation votes. The simulation system has two advantage beside the prediction of thermal sensation; automatic generation of a computational model and coupling analysis of temperature including an analysis of temperature distribution inside a cabin, refrigerating cycle, solar radiation, and so on. It was verified that this system well predicts occupant's thermal sensation in a short time.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

2001-03-05
2001-01-1298
NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Innovative injection rate control with next-generation, common-rail fuel injection system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0061
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1995-11-01
952650
Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emission with New Water Injection System in a Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960033
In this study a new water injection system was applied to an 11 liter naturally aspirated DI diesel engine in order to reduce exhaust emissions. In this system, the water and fuel were arranged in the injection nozzle during the time between injections as fuel, water and then fuel. The fuel and water were then injected into the cylinder in that order. The tests were conducted at several engine operating conditions from the Japanese 13 mode test cycle to clarify effects of water injection on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NOx reduction was directly proportional to the relative amount of water injection, regardless of engine speed and load. By using the optimal relative amount of water injection at each engine operating condition, total NOx and particulate matter (PM) in the Japanese 13 mode test cycle were reduced by 50% and 25%, respectively, without a fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Wind Throb Using CFD and Flow Visualization

1997-02-24
970407
Passenger cars with sunroofs sometimes experience a low frequency pulsation noise called “wind throb” when traveling with the roof open. This “wind throb” should be suppressed because it is an unpleasant noise which can adversely affect the acoustic environment inside a car. In this paper, 3-dimensional numerical flow analysis is applied around a car body to investigate the wind throb phenomenon. The computational scheme and the modeling method of the car body is first described. A flow visualization test in a water tunnel was completed for the simple car body shape to compare against the numerical procedure. The numerical and the visualized results compared well and the numerical simulation method employed was considered to be a reliable tool to analyze the wind throb phenomenon. Calculated results of pressure and vorticity distribution in the sunroof opening were analyzed with the spectrum of pressure fluctuation at the sunroof opening with and without a deflector.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970340
In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Fuel Injection System for Improvement of Engine Performance on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980806
With the intention of improving engine performance and emissions, the authors examined the influence of the method of initial fuel injection quantity reduction and of the injector configuration of a common rail fuel injection system on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Results showed that decreasing the nozzle hole diameter was an effective way to reduce the initial injection quantity without increasing black smoke. Compared to a three-way type injector, it was found that a two-way type injector can greatly reduce the amount of fuel leakage from the electromagnetic injector control valve and fuel consumption could be further improved by reduction of the driving loss. Furthermore, the increase of driving losses with higher injection pressure was small, and as a result, higher pressure injection was possible.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Location Achieved with a Curve Catalytic Honeycomb Substrate

1994-03-01
940743
A new type of catalytic converter has been developed for the coming TLEV (Transitional Low Emission Vehicle) standards. It is a “Front Curve Catalytic Converter (FCCC)” using a curved cordierite ceramic honeycomb substrate. During this development, an optimum location and volume of the front curve catalytic converter were determined from the view points of thermal deterioration of the catalyst and hydrocarbon conversion performance. Based on CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) analysis, the best curvature radius of the substrate was selected to minimize a pressure drop of the front curve catalytic converter. The emission conversion and light-off performances of the front curve catalytic converter were compared with a conventional straight design. A series of durability tests; hot vibration, engine dynamometer and vehicle fleet tests were also conducted to confirm the reliability of the new front curve catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Application of Common Rail Fuel Injection System to a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

1994-11-01
942294
In the diesel engine industry, the growing trends are toward wider use of electronically controlled high pressure fuel injection equipment to provide better engine performance, while conforming to the stringent exhaust emission standards. Although there have been some recent announcements of a diesel engine that applies an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system, there is little literature published about any attempt to reduce both exhaust emissions and noise and to improve engine performance by varying injection pressure and injection timing independently and introducing pilot injection in combination. This paper describes the details of a study made on the parameters associated with injection timing, injection pressure and pilot injection and the procedures for their optimization, with an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system installed in an in-line 6-cylinder 6.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1998-02-23
980158
Spray motion visualization, mixture strength measurement, flame spectral analyses and flame behavior observation were performed in order to elucidate the mixture preparation and the combustion processes in Mitsubishi GDI engine. The effects of in-cylinder flow called reverse tumble on the charge stratification were clarified. It preserves the mixture inside the spherical piston cavity, and extends the optimum injection timing range. Mixture strength at the spark plug and at the spark timing can be controlled by changing the injection timing. It was concluded that reverse tumble plays a significant role for extending the freedom of mixing. The characteristics of the stratified charge combustion were clarified through the flame radiation analyses. A first flame front with UV luminescence propagates rapidly and covers all over the combustion chamber at the early stage of combustion.
Technical Paper

Optimized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for the European Market

1998-02-23
980150
GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting new combustion control technologies was developed and introduced into Japanese domestic market in August of 1996. In order to extend its application to the European market, various system modifications have been performed. Injectors are located with a smaller angle to the vertical line in order to improve the combustion stability in the higher speed range. A new combustion control method named “two-stage mixing” is adopted to suppress the knock in the low speed range. As a result of this new method, the compression ratio was increased up to 12.5 to 1 while increasing the low-end torque significantly. Taking the high sulfur gasoline in the European market into account, a selective reduction lean-NOx catalyst with improved NOx conversion efficiency was employed. A warm-up catalyst can not be used because the selective reduction lean NOx catalyst requires HC for the NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 19-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971673
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed a new V configured 8 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine (8M22T1) for the heavy-duty truck market. The engine is one of the first in its class to feature a common rail fuel injection system. This advanced engine management system was selected to meet the challenges of ever tightening emission regulation, specifically in the areas of smoke and noise. The 8M22T1 embodies a number of design innovations which have resulted in significant improvements in performance, fuel economy, durability and reliability.
Technical Paper

Technology for Low Emission, Combustion Noise and Fuel Consumption on Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940672
In order to reduce exhaust emission and combustion noise and to improve fuel consumption, the effects of the combustion system parameters of a diesel engine, such as injection pressure, injection nozzle hole diameter, swirl ratio, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption are investigated and described in detail by analyzing rate of heat release, needle valve lift and injection pressure. Based on these results, reduction of exhaust emission and combustion noise and improvement of fuel consumption are described in the latter part of this paper. These results are shown as follows. The smaller nozzle hole diameter is effective for reducing smoke and PM, and by optimizing the injection timing and swirl ratio, NOx can also be reduced. In addition to the above, by applying EGR and higher injection pressure it is possible to improve the fuel consumption with the remaining low NOx and PM.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

1993-11-01
932958
The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Control Systems that Improve Three Way Catalyst Conversion Efficiency

1991-02-01
910390
A fuel control method to reduce the harmful exhaust gas from SI engines is proposed. As is well known, both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle in a conventional air-fuel ratio control system are determined uniquely by parameters in the system. And this limits our making full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. A simple model of TWC reaction revealed the relationship between maximum conversion efficiency and both the amplitude and the frequency in a air fuel control system. It also revealed that TWC conversion efficiency attained to maximum levels when both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle are selected so as to make full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to vary both the amplitude and the frequency arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

Mitsubishi New 12.0-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1990-09-01
901572
To meet the increasingly strong demand for high-speed transportation, better fuel economy, higher reliability and the social requirements for more strict Japanese regulations against exhaust and noise emissions, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has recently developed the 6D40T1 in-line 6-cylinder, 12.0-liter turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine for heavy-duty trucks. This engine meets the 1989 Japanese exhaust emission regulations and has an output of 258 kW. To achieve both fuel economy and good drivability, Mitsubishi's original, electronically-controlled fuel injection system was adopted. The so-called prestroke-controlled fuel injection pump is capable of flexible and precise control of both fuel injection rate and timing. The basic structure of the 6D40T1 was designed with high rigidity to permit high cylinder pressures. In addition, to reduce friction and heat losses, a 4-valve design, roller cam followers with needle roller bearings, and shortened exhaust ports were adopted.
Technical Paper

A Particulate Trap System Using Electric Heating Regeneration for Small Trucks

1992-02-01
920141
A trap system has been developed that collects particulate using two small filters and regenerates alternately by electric heaters. This system contains a new idea in detection of the amount of particulate accumulation in the filters. The system counts the amount using a particulate accumulation rate map which is a function of the engine load and speed. In vehicle test with this trap system, the particulate collection efficiency and the regeneration efficiency were proved to be high enough for practical use. The test results also showed that the shutdown performance of the route switch valve greatly influenced the regeneration efficiency.
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