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Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Technology for Low Emission, Combustion Noise and Fuel Consumption on Diesel Engine

In order to reduce exhaust emission and combustion noise and to improve fuel consumption, the effects of the combustion system parameters of a diesel engine, such as injection pressure, injection nozzle hole diameter, swirl ratio, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption are investigated and described in detail by analyzing rate of heat release, needle valve lift and injection pressure. Based on these results, reduction of exhaust emission and combustion noise and improvement of fuel consumption are described in the latter part of this paper. These results are shown as follows. The smaller nozzle hole diameter is effective for reducing smoke and PM, and by optimizing the injection timing and swirl ratio, NOx can also be reduced. In addition to the above, by applying EGR and higher injection pressure it is possible to improve the fuel consumption with the remaining low NOx and PM.
Technical Paper

Soot and Valve Train Wear in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

The effect of the use of the EGR system on the lubrication of a passenger car diesel engine was investigated. The higher the EGR rate, the more soot in the oil. And the most detrimental effect was found in valve train wear. Some engine tests, including motoring tests, were carried out to investigate the contribution of soot to valve train wear. The mechanism of cam and rocker arm wear in used oils was studied by analyzing for elements on the lubricated metal surface and subsequently the mechanism was more thoroughly studied using the four-ball test. Soot seems to act as an abrasive on the anti-wear solid film formed by the oil on the metal surface and this film contains Ca, O, P and S. Some hardware modifications and oil formulations to reduce valve train wear are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Combustion System (MCA-JET) in Gasoline Engine

A new combustion system - called MCA-JET- has been developed to improve combustion under the low speed, low load conditions typical of urban driving. Engines with this new system incorporate a special “jet valve”, in addition to the inlet and exhaust valves of the conventional combustion chamber, which directs air or a super-lean mixture towards the spark plug, and induces a strong swirling flow in the cylinder. This swirl persists during the compression and expansion processes, moves the mixture spirally and helps the flame to propagate. As a result, the combustion of lean mixtures, including those with exhaust gas recirculation, can be carried out rapidly and thus the fuel economy improved.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oil to Extend Oil Drain Intervals: 5W30 Fully Synthetic Oil Containing MoDTC

In this study, the oxidation stability, soot dispersancy, antiwear performance, and friction-reducing capability of friction modifiers (FMs) were evaluated, and an SAE 5W-30 fully synthetic oil with MoDTC type FMs was developed for heavy-duty diesel engines. In several engine tests, it was confirmed that the developed oil can double the oil drain interval in comparison with API CD SAE 30, even when EGR is applied, and improves the fuel efficiency.