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Technical Paper

Building Automotive LIN Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-1147
As automotive electronic systems become more and more spread, the necessity for a complete portfolio of communication standards for automotive applications becomes obvious. In the low cost Class A Smart Sensor & Actuator arena Local Interconnect Network (LIN) is the top candidate to be used as a multiplex standard all over the world. The LIN concept includes not only the physical layer and the data link layer; it also defines the tool interfaces and network description to speed the development process for in vehicle networks. This article describes the development process for LIN applications and gives an example of a typical LIN application, explains the benefits of this solution from the major aspects, the usage of the different tool interfaces, and its representation on the data link layer and the physical layer.
Technical Paper

Low-Power Flexible Controls Architecture for General Motors Partnership for a New Generation (Pngv) Precept Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C060
The complexity of designing and implementing a vehicle electrical control system for ultra fuel-efficient hybrid vehicles is significantly greater than that of a conventional vehicle. To quickly demonstrate and iterate capabilities of these vehicles, an efficient and rapid means for developing requirements, mapping these into an electrical control and communications architecture, and developing prototype systems is needed. The General Motors Precept concept vehicle is an example of an energy- efficient vehicular control system developed using a "requirements to software'' development process and electronic controller infrastructure that demonstrates these attributes. The Precept is General Motors Corporation's technology demonstration concept vehicle developed to address General Motors Corporation's commitment to the Partnership for a New Generation (PNGV) program.
Technical Paper

A Robust Active Suspension Controller with Rollover Prevention

2003-03-03
2003-01-0959
In this paper, we discuss the mathematical modeling of suspension and rollover characteristics. With dynamics analysis, a simple active suspension control is designed with rollover prevention. Also studied is the framework of how to integrate active suspension and steering in the emergency situations besides regular ride and handling suspension control. Simulation results are presented.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management - A Manageable Approach for Integrating Life Cycle Management into Manufacturing

1996-02-01
961028
Environmental issues have significantly impacted automotive operations worldwide. Countries are continuing to ratchet down their allowable emissions and to remain competitive, all industries must take Life Cycle Management (LCM) and implement it into everyday practice. Economic competitiveness as a part of economic development is central to the nation's social and financial well-being. America must catch-up to the rest of the world in how it views government and industry relationships as well as how to focus costs within the corporate structure. The adversarial relationships between government and industry must give way to stronger partnerships. For this concept to succeed a long term view of problems must be made by a corporation and both short and long term actions taken to resolve these problems. Industry must help create the market for recycled goods and must “walk the talk” by using recycled goods where possible.
Technical Paper

Automated Test Request and Data Acquisition System for Vehicle Emission Testing

1997-02-24
970273
Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Technical Paper

Advancements in RRIM Fascia Application Provide Cost Competitiveness While Meeting Performance Requirements

1997-02-24
970482
The commercial validation of a optimized RRIM polyurethane substrate with a novel barrier coat for fascia applications is reviewed which creates cost competitiveness to thermoplastic olefins (TPO), without sacrificing performance. Meeting fascia performance requirements with thinner and lighter RRIM materials containing recyclate and the subsequent application of a barrier coat eliminating the traditional primecoat cycle was investigated.
Technical Paper

Using Life Cycle Management to Evaluate Lead-Free Electrocoat‡

1997-02-24
970696
Environmental costs are a delayed financial burden that result from product decisions made early in the product life cycle--early material choices may create regulatory and waste management costs that were not factored into the acquisition cost. This paper outlines a step-wise approach to determine decision points; environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) cost drivers that affect decisions; and sources of information required to conduct a Life Cycle Management (LCM) review. Additionally, how LCM fits into the larger concurrent engineering framework is illustrated with an electrocoat primer example. Upstream and downstream supply chain processes are reviewed, as well as organizational challenges that affect the decision process.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

1997-05-20
971953
To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management of Hydraulic Fluids and Lubricant Oils at Chrysler

1998-11-30
982221
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
Technical Paper

The Chrysler “Quick Shift Neon” Automanual Transmission Project

1998-11-16
983082
Formula One motorsport competition, ever seeking increases in powertrain responsiveness and efficiency, has utilized electronically-shifted manual transmissions for nearly a decade. With the advent of this technology for passenger car usage ( for example the Magneti Marelli “Selespeed” system), new levels of powertrain electronic control become possible. At the same time, world-wide emission and fuel economy standards have driven powertrain designers to seek transmissions that are multi-faceted; able to offer manual transmission levels of driveline efficiency while simultaneously offering the ability to be automatically controlled. This paper will document a 1995-1996 Chrysler advanced powertrain concept study that culminated in a fully driveable, fully automatic, manual 5 speed transmission Neon coupe.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

1994-03-01
940445
Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pelvis-Chest Interactions in Hybrid III

1995-02-01
950663
The interaction ILLEGIBLEf the chest of the Hybrid III dummy with the air bag restrILLEGIBLEt system during a crash is complex. Forces applied to one ILLEGIBLEmponent of the dummy can generate an unexpected response in a distal part. Motion, both linear and angular, of the pelvis during impact can create an enigmatic spike in the acceleration of the chest. Because significant changes in the chest acceleration response can affect the development of an airbag system, this pelvis-chest interaction is cause for concern. The factors that appear to affect the chest acceleration spike as a result of the pelvis-chest interaction are: the mass moment of inertia of the pelvis, the interaction of the pelvis with the femur, the characteristic of the lumbar spine, and the differential velocity of the pelvis with respect to the chest.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

1995-02-01
950826
The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Environment, Health and Safety: A Decision Model for Product Development

1996-02-01
960407
Environmental issues continue to emerge as a significant concern of the public today. End-of-pipe controls have proven to be costly solutions and have not addressed the root causes of environmental issues. Pollution prevention programs better address concerns and produce more cost-effective solutions. Additionally, regulations can no longer be addressed in isolation. Industry must view regulatory requirements as other business matters are addressed. The integration of regulatory requirements into the business plan focuses the cost of compliance on appropriate products or processes and exposes formerly hidden costs. For highly outsourced OEM's, supplier participation is critical to the success of any program. The bounds of Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) are extended through an integrated global raw material strategy that encompasses regulated substance control, material selection and rationalization, and design for recyclability/separability.
Technical Paper

Extending the Enterprise: The Supplier Role in Product Stewardship

1995-12-01
952785
The bounds of Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) are extended through an integrated global raw material strategy which encompasses regulated substance control, material selection and rationalization, and design for recyclability/separability. A life cycle management (LCM) model is used to evaluate environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) issues in a systematic business decision framework.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of the Output of the 1993 3.5L Chrysler-Lamborghini CL-01 Formula 1 Engine

1996-12-01
962543
The true output of racing engines is normally a closely guarded secret. This is particularly so in Formula One. Also, the consistency of output between engines of identical specifications is of interest to all those involved. This paper outlines a study that was done on the 1993 3.5L Chrysler-Lamborghini CL-01 Formula 1 Engine, and will cover: The output variation of one specific engine configuration/fuel combination over the course of the season, The output variation of a second build/fuel combination over a significant number of builds, The output improvements due to fuels, The output changes due to mechanical developments during the season. The paper will also show that if engine output has been designated as one of the criteria for accepting or rejecting an engine, very small differences in either the acceptable level of performance or the recorded output can make a very significant difference to the number of engines rejected.
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