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Technical Paper

A Study of Decrease Oil Consumption for NSOR-Two-Ring Package Piston

1991-02-01
910435
Furuhama(1)* proposed the new two ring package consist of a pressure ring and a narrow single-rail oil ring (NSOR) in 1985. Number of studies(2) have been done for the purpose of reducing the oil consumption (OC) in this ring package. However, OC reduction problem has been still remaining to solve as only one serious problem of this ring package. The reasons of a larger OC in the new ring package than the conventional three ring has been hardly understood, considering the OC control ability on second ring in three ring package will not so large since the fact that the oil film thickness is thicker than that of the oil ring. In this study, the mechanism of OC increase in new ring package was found out at last, as a result, OC of new ring package piston was improved up to the same level of conventional three ring package piston.
Technical Paper

Low NOx Emission Automobile Liquid Hydrogen Engine by Means of Dual Mixture Formation

1993-03-01
930757
According to authors' previous research, high pressure hydrogen engines with direct injection right before TDC and spark ignition obtain high performance and eliminate almost. abnormal combustion. This study has clarified the mooted points in the flame propagation to adjacent jets and the control of the optimum spark timing and large NOx emissions even in leaner than excess air ratio of λ=2. Nitric oxides (NOx) is the only the pollutant in the exhaust gases emitted by hydrogen engines. It has been found that the NOx formation largely depends on the mixture formation method. In order to operate the engine in a small amount of NOx, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the reduction of NOx and the output power by using dual mixture formation method, external mixture formation and direct injection.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston-Skirt Deformation in Engine Operation by Means of Rotating Cylinder with Gap-Sensors

1993-03-01
930717
An unique measurement method was developed for measurement of the piston outer surface during the engine operation. The method was realized by embedding a gap sensor into a cylinder bore and by rotating the cylinder in the circumferential direction. By means of this method, interesting data of skirt deformation of a gasoline engine caused by temperature, pressure and the slap force were obtained.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion Pressure Vibration in Hydrogen Fuel Injection Hot Surface Ignition Engines

1987-09-01
871611
In high pressure hydrogen injection hot surface ignition engines under nearly all engine operating conditions combustion pressure vibration is generated just after ignition. As a result of many experimental investigations the true nature for the cause of this interesting phenomenon was found and are listed: (1) This phenomenon probably originates from the extremely high local rate of burning of the hydrogen-air mixture. (2) Accompaning the stronger combustion pressure vibration was an increase in engine vibration and noise with increase in NOx emission and higher piston temperature. (3) Longer ignition delay resulted in a steeper pressure-time diagram which resalted in a stronger combustion pressure vibration. (4) The phenomenon had negligible effect on engine performance. (5) The phenomenon can be prevented by premixing a ceratain quantity of hydrogen gas into the intake air stream. The result was a shortened ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston Skirt Oil-film Pressure under Piston Slap

2007-05-15
2007-01-2215
Using small thin-film pressure sensors deposited onto a piston skirt surface, oil-film pressure on the piston skirt surface is measured when piston slap noise is generated without affecting the surface geometry, stiffness and mass of the piston. Under a no-load firing engine condition and at low temperature, the measured oil-film pressure corresponded well to the measured acceleration of the cylinder liner, which is indicative of piston slap noise, confirming the validity of the present method. Moreover, the oil-film pressure distribution on the skirt surface was measured for different engine speeds and piston pin offsets, which enabled more insight to be provided into piston secondary motion than that by considering the effects of cylinder liner acceleration.
Technical Paper

Part 1: Piston Friction and Noise Study of Three Different Piston Architectures for an Automotive Gasoline Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0427
The objective was to rank piston friction and noise for three piston architectures at three cold clearance conditions. Piston secondary motion was measured using four gap sensors mounted on each piston skirt to better understand the friction and noise results. One noticeable difference in friction performance from conventional designs was as engine speed increased the friction force during the expansion stroke decreased. This was accompanied by relatively small increases in friction force during the other strokes so Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) for the whole cycle was reduced. Taguchi's Design of Experiment method was used to analyze the variances in friction and noise.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Phenomena of Piston Ring Collapse

2002-03-04
2002-01-0483
This study has been conducted aiming at an experimental verification of the ring collapse phenomena that occurs in a taper faced second ring of a direct fuel injection type truck diesel engine. The oil film thickness of the second ring, the ring axial motion and the inter-ring pressure have been measured under various operating conditions of engine. As a result, it is verified that the back pressure of the second ring becomes lower than the second land pressure, and that the second ring oil film becomes extremely thick temporarily where the second ring contacts with the ring groove upper surface. It is also verified that blow-by passes through the second ring where the oil film of the second ring becomes thick. Hence it is highly probable that the collapse of the second ring has occurred at that time.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Pressure in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine Using Thin-Film Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0438
We developed a technique to measure oil film pressure distribution in engine main bearings using thin-film pressure sensors. The sensor is 7μm in thickness, and is processed on the surface of an aluminum alloy bearing. In order to increase the durability of the sensor, a layer of MoS2 and polyamide-imide was coated on thin-film sensors. This technique was applied to a 1.4L common-rail diesel engine operated at a maximum speed of 4,500r/min with a 100Nm full load, and the oil film pressure was monitored while the engine was operating. The measured pressure was compared with calculations based on hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) theory.
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