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Technical Paper

Growth of Super-Dwarf Wheat on the Russian Space Station MIR

During 1995, we tested instruments and attempted a seed-to-seed experiment with Super-Dwarf wheat in the Russian Space Station Mir. Utah instrumentation included four IR gas analyzers (CO2 and H2O vapor, calculate photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration) and sensors for air and leaf (IR) temperatures, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture (16 probes). Shortly after planting on August 14, three of six fluorescent lamp sets failed; another failed later. Plastic bags, necessary to measure gas exchange, were removed. Hence, gases were measured only in the cabin atmosphere. Other failures led to manual watering, control of lights, and data transmission. The 57 plants were sampled five times plus final harvest at 90 d. Samples and some equipment (including hard drives) were returned to earth on STS-74 (Nov. 20). Plants were disoriented and completely vegetative. Maintaining substrate moisture was challenging, but the moisture probes functioned well.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

This paper presents a description of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) and its functionality as a pilot study for the design of a future Lunar-Mars habitat. A description of the prototype development testbed, located at Ames Research, is provided as well as an analysis of the key design parameters. The CAAP program is tasked with the development of a life support testbed at the South Pole. This facility will include food production, waste processing, and in situ energy production capabilities. The testbed will provide NASA with a remote facility located in an extremely harsh environment which has been designed to provide a useful analog to the deployment of a future Lunar-Martian habitat. NASA's program goals are the operational testing of life support technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate future technology selection and system design.
Technical Paper

Cold Weather Wind Turbines - A Joint NASA/NSF/DOE Effort in Technology Transfer and Commercialization

Renewable energy sources and their integration with other power sources to support remote communities is of interest for Mars applications as well as Earth communities. The NSF, NASA, and DOE have been jointly supporting development of a 100 kW cold weather wind turbine through grants and SBIR's independently managed by each agency but coordinated by NASA. The NSF grant is specific to address issues associated with the South Pole Application and a 3 kW direct drive unit is currently being tested there in support of the development of the 100 kW unit. An NREL contract is focused on development of the 100 kW direct drive generator. The NASA SBIR is focused on development of the 100 kW direct drive wind turbine.