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Technical Paper

Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the Mir Space Station

The reproductive ontogeny of ‘Super-Dwarf’ wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower' development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative plhase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of ‘Super Dwarf’ wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis (during floral development stage 4) and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did not occur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While pollen did form in the anthers, no evidence of pollination or fertilization was observed. Analysis of pollen idlentified abnormalities; the presence of only one nucleus in the pollen as opposed to the normal trinucleate condition is likely an important factor in the sterility observed in wheat grown on Mir.
Technical Paper

Remote Sites as Analogs for Lunar and Mars Habitat Pilot Studies

Planetary surface exploration and establishment of human habitats are complex tasks requiring a wide variety of capabilities. We currently do not posses these capabilities or experience base necessary for long-duration habitation of other planets. Future exploration can be guided by experiences gained during analogous activities at appropriate sites on Earth. The Antarctic continent is of great analog value to NASA in the area of planetary exploration. The U.S. South Pole Station is of particular relevance to habitat development. The Station offers great fidelity in resemblance to NASA missions, an effective infrastructure is already in place to support activities, and implementation of NASA-derived technologies can improve the quality of life for Station inhabitants and reduce the environmental impact of human activities on the Antarctic continent. These technologies can also address important issues facing remote communities around the globe.
Technical Paper

The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project and Validation of Assumptions and Solutions Regarding Regenerative Life Support Technologies

The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is providing NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) with an understanding of the complex and interrelated elements of life support and habitation, both on the Antarctic continent and in future missions to space. CAAP is providing a method for challenging the assumption upon which the application of regenerative life support systems are based and thus is providing a heritage of reliability and dependable function. Currently in the early stages of the project, CAAP is laying a path in addressing system engineering issues, technology selection and integrated operation under a set of relevant and real mission constraints. Recent products include identification of energy as a critical limiting resource in the potential application of regenerative systems. Alternatives to the traditional method of life support system development and energy management have been developed and are being implemented in the CAAP testbed.
Technical Paper

The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: A Validation of CELSS Methodologies at the South Pole Station

The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint NSF and NASA project tor the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. CAAP is implemented through the joint NSF/NASA Antarctic Space Analog Program (ASAP), initiated to support the pursuit of future NASA missions and to promote the transfer of space technologies to the NSF. As a joint endeavor, the CAAP represents an example of a working dual agency cooperative project. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific study to facilitate technology selection, system design and methods development required for the operation of a CELSS. Although not fully closed, food production, water purification, and waste recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau.
Technical Paper

Plant Growth and Ecosystem Development on a Terraformed Mars: With the Use of the International Space Station to Investigate Plant Growth in Martian Gravity

A fundamental question for Astrobiology is the question of the ability of life to expand beyond its planet of origin. Introducing life on Mars is the likely near-term step in addressing this question. Making Mars more suitable for life (terraforming) involves altering the martian environment so that microorganisms and plants from Earth could survive there. We define two principal goals: 1) determine the minimal change in pressure, gas composition, and temperature on Mars that would allow for growth of plants from arctic and alpine biomes. 2) Determine the characteristics of plant growth at 0.38 g. This paper reviews martian environmental factors in the context of plant survival, and discusses the use of Space Station as a hypogravity testbed.