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Technical Paper

Durable Coating Technology for Lunar Dust Protection and Mitigation

Special coatings are being developed and tested to contend with the effects of dust on the lunar surface. These coatings will have wide applicability ranging from prevention of dust buildup on solar arrays and radiator surfaces to protection of EVA space suit fabrics and visors. They will be required to be durable and functional based on application. We have started preparing abrasion-resistant transparent conductive coatings ∼40 nm thick were formed by co-deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanium (Ti) on room-temperature glass and polycarbonate substrates using two RF magnetron sputtering sources. By adjusting Ti content, we obtained sheet resistivities in the range 104-1010 ohms/square. We have also started conducting a series of environmental tests that simulate the exposure of coated samples to dust under relevant conditions, beginning with abrasion tests using regolith simulant materials.
Technical Paper

Results and Analysis from Reduced Gravity Experiments of the Flexible Membrane Commode Apparatus

Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
Technical Paper

Testing of an R134a Spray Evaporative Heat Sink

The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing a spacecraft open loop spray evaporative heat sink for use in pressure environments near sea-level, where evaporative cooling of water is not effective. The working fluid is R134a, a common refrigerant used in household appliances, considered safe and non-toxic for humans. The concept uses an open loop spray of R134a impinging on a heated flat plate, through which a closed loop of hot coolant flows, having acquired the heat from spacecraft electronics boxes, the cabin heat exchanger, and other heat sources. The latent heat of evaporation cools the outside of the hot plate, and through heat conduction, reduces the temperature of the coolant. The testing at NASA Glenn has used an electrically heated cylindrical copper target to simulate the hot plate. This paper will discuss the R134a feed system, the test matrix, and test results.
Technical Paper

Innovative Multi-Environment, Multimode Thermal Control System

Innovative multi-environment multimode thermal management architecture has been described that is capable of meeting widely varying thermal control requirements of various exploration mission scenarios currently under consideration. The proposed system is capable of operating in a single-phase or two-phase mode rejecting heat to the colder environment, operating in a two-phase mode with heat pump for rejecting heat to a warm environment, as well as using evaporative phase-change cooling for the mission phases where the radiator is incapable of rejecting the required heat. A single fluid loop can be used internal and external to the spacecraft for the acquisition, transport and rejection of heat by the selection of a working fluid that meets NASA safety requirements. Such a system may not be optimal for each individual mode of operation but its ability to function in multiple modes may permit global optimization of the thermal control system.
Technical Paper

Weathering of Thermal Control Coatings

Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings. Radiators can be deployable or mounted on the body of the spacecraft. NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle is to use body mounted radiators. Coatings play an important role in heat rejection. The coatings provide the radiator surface with the desired optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. These specialized surfaces are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an appliqué. Not specifically designed for a weathering environment, little is known about the durability of conventional paints, coatings, and appliqués upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to solar wind and ultraviolet radiation exposure. In addition to maintaining their desired optical properties, the coatings must also continue to adhere to the underlying radiator panel.
Technical Paper

Radiation in Space and its Control of Equilibrium Temperatures in the Solar System

The problem of determining equilibrium temperatures for re-radiating surfaces in space vacuum was analyzed and the resulting mathematical relationships were incorporated in a code to determine space sink temperatures in the solar system. A brief treatment of planetary atmospheres is also included. Temperature values obtained with the code are in good agreement with available spacecraft telemetry and meteorological measurements for Venus and Earth. The code has been used in the design of space power system radiators for future interplanetary missions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.