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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

2011-06-13
2011-38-0065
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamics of Packed Bed Reactor in Low Gravity

2005-07-11
2005-01-3035
Packed bed reactors are well known for their vast and diverse applications in the chemical industry; from gas absorption, to stripping, to catalytic conversion. Use of this type of reactor in terrestrial applications has been rather extensive because of their simplicity and relative ease of operation. Developing similar reactors for use in microgravity is critical to many space-based advanced life support systems. However, the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow packed bed reactors in this new environment and the effects of one physicochemical process on another has not been adequately assessed. Surface tension or capillary forces play a much greater role which results in a shifting in flow regime transitions and pressure drop. Results from low gravity experiments related to flow regimes and two-phase pressure drop models are presented in this paper along with a description of plans for a flight experiment on the International Space Station (ISS).
Technical Paper

Gravity Effects on Premixed and Diffusion Limited Supercritical Water Oxidation

2005-07-11
2005-01-3036
Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) may become an attractive technology for processing solid and liquid wastes for long duration space and extraterrestrial planetary missions. Gravitational influences on the operation of SCWO reactors are discussed in the context of key dimensionless parameters for two general modes of operation: a “premixed” mode, where the reactants are brought to supercritical temperatures and pressures simultaneously, and a “diffusion limited” mode, where one of the reactants (typically the oxidizer) is injected into the reactor after the bulk fluid is raised to supercritical temperatures and pressures. An experimental facility for testing the gravitational influences on a SCWO reactor is then discussed.
Technical Paper

Anthropometric and Blood Flow Characteristics Leading to EVA Hand Injury

2009-07-12
2009-01-2471
The aim of this study was to explore if fingernail delamination injury following EMU glove use may be caused by compression-induced blood flow occlusion in the finger. During compression tests, finger blood flow decreased more than 60%, however this occurred more rapidly for finger pad compression (4 N) than for fingertips (10 N). A pressure bulb compression test resulted in 50% and 45% decreased blood flow at 100 mmHg and 200 mmHg, respectively. These results indicate that the finger pad pressure required to articulate stiff gloves is more likely to contribute to injury than the fingertip pressure associated with tight fitting gloves.
Technical Paper

Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation

2002-04-16
2002-01-1528
NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model Development for Icing Effects Flight Training

2002-04-16
2002-01-1527
A high-fidelity simulation model for icing effects flight training was developed from wind tunnel data for the DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. First, a flight model of the un-iced airplane was developed and then modifications were generated to model the icing conditions. The models were validated against data records from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research flight test program with only minimal refinements being required. The goals of this program were to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a simulator for training pilots to recognize and recover from icing situations and to establish a process for modeling icing effects to be used for future training devices.
Technical Paper

SLD Research in the UK

2003-06-16
2003-01-2128
This paper reviews work conducted in the UK aimed at developing validated methods to simulate ice accretion formed in super-cooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions. To date, QinetiQ has completed one theoretical and three experimental programmes of work. Two further studies are currently in progress within UK universities. This paper provides results from the third test conducted by QinetiQ and NASA in the GKN Aerospace Composite Technologies Icing Research Wind Tunnel, Luton UK, to measure the mass loss through droplet splash during an SLD encounter. A description of the test procedures and the results obtained are provided. Future work on SLD methods development in progress in the UK is then briefly outlined.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of SLD Impingement on Airfoils and Simulated Ice Shapes

2003-06-16
2003-01-2129
This paper presents experimental methods for investigating large droplet impingement dynamics and for obtaining small and large water droplet impingement data. Droplet impingement visualization experiments conducted in the Goodrich Icing Wind Tunnel with a 21-in chord NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrated considerable droplet splashing during impingement. The tests were performed for speeds in the range 50 to 175 mph and with cloud median volumetric diameters in the range of 11 to 270 microns. Extensive large droplet impingement tests were conducted at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Impingement data were obtained for a range of airfoil sections including three 36-inch chord airfoils (MS(1)-0317, GLC-305, and NACA 652-415), a 57-inch chord Twin Otter horizontal tail section and 22.5-minute and 45-minute LEWICE glaze ice shapes for the Twin Otter tail section. Small droplet impingement tests were also conducted for selected test models.
Technical Paper

Flying Qualities Evaluation of a Commuter Aircraft with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane

2000-05-09
2000-01-1676
During the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program, pilot evaluations of aircraft flying qualities were conducted with various ice shapes attached to the horizontal tailplane of the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Initially, only NASA pilots conducted these evaluations, assessing the differences in longitudinal flight characteristics between the baseline or clean aircraft, and the aircraft configured with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane (ICT). Longitudinal tests included Constant Airspeed Flap Transitions, Constant Airspeed Thrust Transitions, zero-G Pushovers, Repeat Elevator Doublets, and, Simulated Approach and Go-Around tasks. Later in the program, guest pilots from government and industry were invited to fly the NASAT win Otter configured with a single full-span artificial ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tailplane.
Technical Paper

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a 10 kW-hr H2-O2 PEM Fuel Cell Power System for High Altitude Balloon Applications

1999-08-02
1999-01-2588
NASA Glenn Research Center and the Wallops Flight Facility jointly conducted a PEM fuel cell power system development effort for high altitude balloon applications. This was the first phase of NASA efforts to offer higher balloon payload power levels with extended duration mission capabilities for atmospheric science missions. At present, lead-acid batteries typically supply about 100 watts of power to the balloon payload for approximately 8 hours duration. The H2-O2 PEM fuel cell demonstration system developed for this effort can supply at least 200 watts for 48 hours duration. The system was designed and fabricated, then tested in ambient ground environments as well as in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate operation at 75 kft. altitude. Initially, this program was planned to culminate with a demonstration flight test but no flight has been scheduled, thus far.
Technical Paper

A Modular, Peak Power Tracking Solar Array Regulator

1999-08-02
1999-01-2448
Two high voltage, Series Connected Boost Regulators (SCBR) were developed to demonstrate the benefits of the SCBR topology for low Earth orbit communication satellites. The resulting breadboards had a power density of 1,200 W/kg and a measured efficiency of 95-99%. Several peak power tracking methods and algorithms were implemented to demonstrate the ability of the SCBR to peak power track a solar array. The peak power tracker derived maximum power at all times and reduced the number of sunlight battery discharges necessary. The breadboards also demonstrated several modularity techniques, which will allow a common SCBR module to be used in several applications. The breadboards were tested in an end-to-end high voltage test facility using high fidelity solar array simulators, an actual NiH2 battery, and simulated constant power loads. Design details and test results are presented.
Journal Article

Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

2015-06-15
2015-01-2156
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested.
Technical Paper

Ice Particle Impacts on a Flat Plate

2015-06-15
2015-01-2099
This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a flat plate made of glass. The experiment was conducted at the Ballistics Impact Laboratory of NASA Glenn Research Center in 2014 and is part of the NASA fundamental research efforts to study physics of ice particles impact on a surface, in order to improve understanding of ice crystal ingestion and ice accretion inside jet engines. The ice particles, which were nominally spherical ranging in initial diameter between 1 and 3.5 millimeters, were accelerated to velocities from 20 to 130 m/s using a pressure gun. High speed cameras captured the pre-impact particle diameter and velocity data as well as the post-impact fragment data. The initial stages of ice particle breakup were captured and studied at 1,000,000 frames per second with a high speed camera imaging at a plane normal to the impact surface.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Experimental Ice Accretion Data and Assessment of a Thermodynamic Model during Ice Crystal Icing

2019-06-10
2019-01-2016
This paper analyzes ice crystal icing accretion data and evaluates a thermodynamic ice crystal icing model, which has been previously presented, to describe the possible mechanisms of icing within the core of a turbofan jet engine. The model functions between two distinct ice accretions based on a surface energy balance: freeze-dominated icing and melt-dominated icing. Freeze-dominated icing occurs when liquid water (from melted ice crystals) freezes and accretes on a surface along with the existing ice of the impinging water and ice mass. This freeze-dominated icing is characterized as having strong adhesion to the surface. The amount of ice accretion is partially dictated by a freeze fraction, which is the fraction of impinging liquid water that freezes. Melt-dominated icing occurs as unmelted ice on a surface accumulates. This melt-dominated icing is characterized by weakly bonded surface adhesion.
Journal Article

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1984
Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St.
Journal Article

Frostwing Co-Operation in Aircraft Icing Research

2019-06-10
2019-01-1973
The aerodynamic effects of Cold Soaked Fuel Frost have become increasingly significant as airworthiness authorities have been asked to allow it during aircraft take-off. The Federal Aviation Administration and the Finnish Transport Safety Agency signed a Research Agreement in aircraft icing research in 2015 and started a research co-operation in frost formation studies, computational fluid dynamics for ground de/anti-icing fluids, and de/anti-icing fluids aerodynamic characteristics. The main effort has been so far on the formation and aerodynamic effects of CSFF. To investigate the effects, a generic high-lift common research wind tunnel model and DLR-F15 airfoil, representing the wing of a modern jet aircraft, was built including a wing tank cooling system. Real frost was generated on the wing in a wind tunnel test section and the frost thickness was measured with an Elcometer gauge. Frost surface geometry was measured with laser scanning and photogrammetry.
Journal Article

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

2019-06-10
2019-01-1986
Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.
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