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Technical Paper

Piezoelectric Actuator Configuration Optimization for Active Structural Acoustic Control in Aircraft

This paper has presented a technique for the determination of an optimal configuration of fuselage mounted piezoelectric actuators for active structural acoustic control of interior noise in aircraft. The technique has demonstrated much potential in preliminary experiments where actuators were configured to couple into the first principal component of the acoustically coupled fuselage vibration. In this test, average reductions of 6 dB at the error microphones and 4 dB at five auxiliary microphones were observed for a pure tone disturbance at the left forward engine pylon of a business jet. This disturbance was used to simulate an oscillating force due to engine unbalance.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments of Experimental Techniques and Their Applications at NASA Langley Research Center

The need for highly accurate measurements of velocity, temperature, pressure and density has required the development of new experimental techniques. While the majority of these development efforts at NASA Langley are focused toward applications for aeronautical programs such as the High-Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transport, and the National Aero-Space Plane, a number are applicable to other fields. The intent of this paper is to review recent instrumentation developments and applications at NASA Langley Research Center that may have applications in automotive testing. Five experimental techniques are described along with recent results obtained in NASA facilities.
Technical Paper

Advanced Analysis Methods and Nondestructive Inspection Technology Under Development in the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program

An advanced analytical methodology has been developed for predicting the residual strength of stiffened thin-sheet riveted shell structures such as those used for the fuselage of a commercial transport aircraft. The crack-tip opening angle elastic-plastic fracture criterion has been coupled to a geometric and material nonlinear finite element shell code for analyzing complex structural behavior. An automated adaptive mesh refinement capability together with global-local analysis methods have been developed to predict the behavior of fuselage structure with long cracks. This methodology is currently being experimentally verified. Advanced nondestructive inspection technology has been developed that will provide airline operators with the capability to conduct reliable and economical broad-area inspections of aircraft structures.
Technical Paper

Radiation Shielding Issues in Highly Inclined Low Earth Orbits

The highly inclined orbit of the International Space Station Alpha exhibits significant radiation exposure contributions from the galactic cosmic rays penetrating the earth's magnetic field. In the absence of an accepted method for estimating the corresponding astronaut risk, we examined the attenuation characteristics using conventional LET dependent quality factors (as one means of representing RBE) and a track-structure repair model fit to cell transformation (and inactivation) data in the C3H10T1/2 mouse cell system obtained by T. C. Yang and coworkers for various ion beams. Although the usual aluminum spacecraft shield is effective in reducing dose equivalent with increasing shield thickness, cell transformation rates are increased for thin aluminum shields providing increased risk rather than protection to large shield thickness.
Technical Paper

Overview of Noise Reduction Technology in the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) Program

Noise is a barrier issue for penetration of civil markets by future tiltrotor aircraft. To address this issue, elements of the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) [SH(CT)] program are working in three different areas: noise abatement, noise reduction, and noise prediction. Noise abatement refers to modification of flight procedures to achieve quieter approaches. Noise reduction refers to innovative new rotor designs that would reduce the noise produced by a tiltrotor. Noise prediction activities are developing the tools to guide the design of future quiet tiltrotors. This paper presents an overview of SH(CT) activities in all three areas, including sample results.
Technical Paper

Status of Propeller Noise Prediction Methods for General Aviation Aircraft

This paper reviews the status of analytical and empirical propeller noise prediction methods with specific emphasis on those that are suitable for General Aviation propellers. Specifically, the paper reviews the capabilities and limitations of methods that are simple enough for ease of use by industry while providing sufficient accuracy to guide the development of new propeller designs or the modification of existing propeller driven airplanes to satisfy increased certification stringency or cabin comfort objectives.
Technical Paper

Overview of Structural Behavior and Occupant Responses from a Crash Test of a Composite Airplane

As part of NASA's composite structures crash dynamics research, a general aviation aircraft with composite wing, fuselage and empennage (but with metal subfloor structure) was crash tested at the NASA Langley Research Center Impact Dynamics Research Facility. The test was conducted to determine composite aircraft structural behavior for crash loading conditions and to provide a baseline for a similar aircraft test with a modified subfloor. Structural integrity and cabin volume were maintained. Lumbar loads for dummy occupants in energy absorbing seats were substantially lower than those in standard aircraft seats; however, loads in the standard seats were much higher than those recorded under similar conditions for an all-metallic aircraft.
Technical Paper

Alternate Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Technologies for Space Station Application

Alternate Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies were evaluated to reduce Space Station resources and dependence on expendables resupplied from Earth to sustain a multiperson crew in low-Earth orbit. Options were evaluated to close the oxygen (O2) loop by removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the cabin air, reducing the CO2 to water, and electrolyzing the water to provide metabolic O2 for crew consumption. Options were also evaluated to close the urine/flush, condensate, and hygiene water loops to provide potable water for crew use. Specific evaluation parameters were derived which included weight, power, volume, maintenance, resupply consumables, and technology readiness.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Orbit Analysis Program for Spacecraft Thermal Design

This paper presents a simplified orbit analysis program developed to calculate orbital parameters for the thermal analysis of spacecraft and space-flight instruments. The program calculates orbit data for inclined and sunsynchronous earth orbits. Traditional orbit analyses require extensive knowledge of orbital mechanics to produce a simplified set of data for thermal engineers. This program was created to perform orbital analyses with minimal input and provides the necessary output for thermal analysis codes. Engineers will find the program to be a valuable analysis tool for fast and simple orbit calculations. A description of the program inputs and outputs is included. An overview of orbital mechanics for inclined and Sun-synchronous orbits is also presented. Finally, several sample cases are presented to illustrate the thermal analysis applications of the program.
Technical Paper

New NASA Transport Research Facilities to Support Research Flight Operations in Present and Future ATC Environments

The NASA Langley Research Center is developing a set of Transport Research Facilities which will support a simulation-to-flight process that will improve the efficiency of conducting experiments from concept development, to ground-based simulation testing, to flight testing. A key facility is a modified B-757-200 airplane containing an onboard research system. This aircraft is replacing the existing NASA B-737-100 Transport Systems Research Vehicle. The other Transport Research Facilities include two simulator cabs, a Research System Integration Laboratory, and the associated software. These facilities will support research flight operations associated with the present and future air traffic control environments.
Technical Paper

Application of Temperature Sensitive Paint Technology to Boundary Layer Analysis

Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) technology coupled with the Reynolds number capability of modern wind tunnel test facilities produces data required for continuing development of turbulence models, stability codes, and high performance aerodynamic design. Data in this report include: the variation in transition location with Reynolds number in the boundary layer of a two-dimensional high speed natural laminar flow airfoil (HSNLF) model; additional bypass mechanisms present, such as surface roughness elements; and, shock-boundary layer interaction. Because of the early onset of turbulent flow due to surface roughness elements present in testing, it was found that elements from all these data were necessary for a complete analysis of the boundary layer for the HSNLF model.
Technical Paper

Development of Race Car Testing at the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

This paper reviews the development of a new test capability for race cars at the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel. The existing external force balance of the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel, designed for use with full-scale aircraft, was reconfigured for automobile testing. Details of structural modifications relevant to supporting cars and force measurements are shown. A specialized automobile force balance, measuring vehicle drag and individual wheel downforce, was then designed, constructed and calibrated. The design was governed by simplicity and low cost and was tailored to the stock car racing community. The balance became fully operational in early 1998. The overall layout of the automobile balance and comparisons to reference data from another full-scale wind tunnel is presented.
Technical Paper

Application of Laminar Flow Control to High-Bypass-Ratio Turbofan Engine Nacelles

Recently, the concept of the application of hybrid laminar flow to modern commercial transport aircraft was successfully flight tested on a Boeing 757 aircraft. In this limited demonstration, in which only part of the upper surface of the swept wing was designed for the attainment of laminar flow, significant local drag reduction was measured. This paper addresses the potential application of this technology to laminarize the external surface of large, modern turbofan engine nacelles which may comprise as much as 5-10 percent of the total wetted area of future commercial transports. A hybrid-laminar-fiow-control (HLFC) pressure distribution is specified and the corresponding nacelle geometry is computed utilizing a predictor/corrector design method. Linear stability calculations are conducted to provide predictions of the extent of the laminar boundary layer. Performance studies are presented to determine potential benefits in terms of reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Propulsion-Induced Aerodynamic Characteristics on a Wing-Afterbody Configuration with Thrust Vectoring

Aerodynamic effects induced from vectoring an exhaust jet are investigated using a well established thin-layer Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code. This multiple block code has been modified to allow for the specification of jet properties at a block face. The applicability of the resulting code for thrust vectoring applications is verified by comparing numerically and experimentally determined pressure coefficient distributions for a jet-wing afterbody configuration with a thrust-vectoring 2-D nozzle. Induced effects on the body and nearby wing from thrust vectoring are graphically illustrated.
Technical Paper

Fifty Years of Laminar Flow Flight Testing

Laminar flow flight experiments conducted over the past fifty years will be reviewed. The emphasis will be on flight testing conducted under the NASA Laminar Flow Control Program which has been directed towards the most challenging technology application- the high subsonic speed transport. The F111/TACT NLF Glove Flight Test, the F-14 Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment, the 757 Wing Noise Survey and NLF Glove Flight Test, the NASA Jetstar Leading Edge Flight Test Program, and the recently initiated Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Flight Experiment will be discussed. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.
Technical Paper

Power Transmission by Laser Beam from Lunar-Synchronous Satellites to a Lunar Rover

This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.
Technical Paper

Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser for Beamed Power Transmission in Space

A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Runway Surface and Braking on Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire Wear

In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Structural Crash Dynamics Analyses

Presented in this paper are the results of three nonlinear computer programs, KRASH, ACTION and DYCAST used to analyze the dynamic response of a twin-engine, low-wing airplane section subjected to a 8.38 m/s (27.5 ft/s) vertical impact velocity crash condition. This impact condition simulates the vertical sink rate in a shallow aircraft landing or takeoff accident. The three distinct analysis techniques for nonlinear dynamic response of aircraft structures are briefly examined and compared versus each other and the experimental data. The report contains brief descriptions of the three computer programs, the respective aircraft section mathematical models, pertinent data from the experimental test performed at NASA Langley, and a comparison of the analyses versus test results. Cost and accuracy comparisons between the three analyses are made to illustrate the possible uses of the different nonlinear programs and their future potential.
Technical Paper

Spin Flight Research Summary

An extensive general aviation stall/spin research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Flight tests have examined the effects of tail design, wing leading edge design, mass distribution, and minor airframe modifications on spin and recovery characteristics. Results and observations on test techniques are presented for the first airplane in the program. Configuration changes produced spins varying from easily recoverable slow, steep spins to unrecoverable, fast flat spins.