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Technical Paper


The various sources of loads of importance in the design of launch vehicles are discussed generally. The natural vibration modes, which are an essential ingredient in all loads problems, are described for the Saturn vehicle as obtained from a structural replica model. The effects of fuel loading on the structural modes are considered and the results obtained on the model are compared with full-scale results. Launch-vehicle buffeting is discussed and the buffeting characteristics of a manned lunar vehicle configuration are described. Some evaluations of buffeting scaling laws obtained with this configuration are presented. Estimates of the acoustic environment on the spacecraft associated with engine noise at lift-off and with aerodynamic noise due to buffeting are shown. The steady and vibratory loads due to ground winds as determined from wind-tunnel tests of a Saturn model are presented.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Application of Temperature Sensitive Paint Technology to Boundary Layer Analysis

Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) technology coupled with the Reynolds number capability of modern wind tunnel test facilities produces data required for continuing development of turbulence models, stability codes, and high performance aerodynamic design. Data in this report include: the variation in transition location with Reynolds number in the boundary layer of a two-dimensional high speed natural laminar flow airfoil (HSNLF) model; additional bypass mechanisms present, such as surface roughness elements; and, shock-boundary layer interaction. Because of the early onset of turbulent flow due to surface roughness elements present in testing, it was found that elements from all these data were necessary for a complete analysis of the boundary layer for the HSNLF model.
Technical Paper

Development of Race Car Testing at the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

This paper reviews the development of a new test capability for race cars at the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel. The existing external force balance of the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel, designed for use with full-scale aircraft, was reconfigured for automobile testing. Details of structural modifications relevant to supporting cars and force measurements are shown. A specialized automobile force balance, measuring vehicle drag and individual wheel downforce, was then designed, constructed and calibrated. The design was governed by simplicity and low cost and was tailored to the stock car racing community. The balance became fully operational in early 1998. The overall layout of the automobile balance and comparisons to reference data from another full-scale wind tunnel is presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

New NASA Transport Research Facilities to Support Research Flight Operations in Present and Future ATC Environments

The NASA Langley Research Center is developing a set of Transport Research Facilities which will support a simulation-to-flight process that will improve the efficiency of conducting experiments from concept development, to ground-based simulation testing, to flight testing. A key facility is a modified B-757-200 airplane containing an onboard research system. This aircraft is replacing the existing NASA B-737-100 Transport Systems Research Vehicle. The other Transport Research Facilities include two simulator cabs, a Research System Integration Laboratory, and the associated software. These facilities will support research flight operations associated with the present and future air traffic control environments.
Technical Paper

Performance Automotive Applications of Pressure-Sensitive Paint in the Langley Full Scale Tunnel

Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing of automobiles. While significant level resources have been spent on investigating aerodynamics, the methodology has not changed appreciably since the beginning of aerodynamics as a science. Over the past decade, a number of global flow diagnostic techniques have been developed that drastically increase the quality and quantity of data from wind tunnel testing. One of these technologies is the use of pressure sensitive luminescent coatings, known as pressure-sensitive paint, a method which has matured considerably since its inception and is now used extensively in aerospace applications with good results. The goal of this research is to implement this technology in the full scale testing of high performance automotive vehicles. This paper discusses the details of a preliminary test, such as technique, paint formulation, camera and lighting hardware, and data reduction and analysis.
Technical Paper

The Efficacy of Using Synthetic Vision Terrain-Textured Images to Improve Pilot Situation Awareness

The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study is being conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and performance.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Commercial Transport Aircraft Aerodynamics at Extreme Flight Conditions

A series of low-speed static and dynamic wind tunnel tests of a commercial transport configuration over an extended angle of attack/sideslip envelope was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The test results are intended for use in the development of an aerodynamic simulation database for determining aircraft flight characteristics at extreme and loss-of-control conditions. This database will be used for the development of loss-of-control prevention or mitigation systems, pilot training for recovery from such conditions, and accident investigations. An overview of the wind-tunnel tests is presented and the results of the tests are evaluated with respect to traditional simulation database development techniques for modeling extreme conditions to identify regions where simulation fidelity should be addressed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) Techniques for Aerodynamic Testing at Slow Velocities

Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) has been used for several years by the aircraft industry in transonic wind tunnel testing where the oxygen concentrations are low and the luminescence of the paint is easily recorded. Extending PSP to slower speeds where the oxygen concentrations are closer to atmospheric conditions is much more challenging. For the past few years, work has been underway at both Wright Patterson Air Force Base and Ford Motor Company to advance PSP techniques for testing at slower speeds. The CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) provided a way for comparisons to be made of the different PSP systems that were being investigated. This paper will report on PSP tests conducted as part of the CRADA.
Technical Paper

Spin Resistance Development for Small Airplanes - A Retrospective

With the resurgence of the General Aviation industry, the incentive to develop new airplanes for the low-end market has increased. Increased production of small airplanes provides the designers and manufacturers the opportunity to incorporate advanced technologies that are not readily retrofitable to existing designs. Spin resistance is one such technology whose development was concluded by NASA during the 1980’s when the production of small airplanes had slipped into near extinction. This paper reviews the development of spin resistance technology for small airplanes with emphasis on wing design. The definition of what constitutes spin resistance and the resulting amendment of the Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23 to enable certification of spin resistant airplanes are also covered.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Sensor and Actuator Arrays for ASAC Noise Control

This paper summarizes the development of an approach to optimizing the locations for arrays of sensors and actuators in active noise control systems. A type of directed combinatorial search, called Tabu Search, is used to select an optimal configuration from a much larger set of candidate locations. The benefit of using an optimized set is demonstrated. The importance of limiting actuator forces to realistic levels when evaluating the cost function is discussed. Results of flight testing an optimized system are presented. Although the technique has been applied primarily to Active Structural Acoustic Control systems, it can be adapted for use in other active noise control implementations.
Technical Paper

Wing Modification for Increased Spin Resistance

A simple wing leading-edge modification has been developed that delays outer wing panel stall, thus maintaining roll damping to higher angles of attack and delaying the onset of autorotation. The stall angle of attack of the outer wing panel has been shown to be a function of the spanwise length of the leading-edge modification. The margin of spin resistance provided by the modification is being explored through flight tests. Preliminary results have been used to evaluate spin resistance in terms of the difference in angle of attack between outer wing panel stall and the maxiumum attainable angle of attack.
Technical Paper

Man's Role in a Remote Orbital Servicing System

Advancing technology and existing needs are converging toward a new spacecraft system - a free-flying telemanipulator system which can perform satellite servicing, minor repairs, inspection, and retrieval. Langley is supporting the technology required and performing systems analysis for such a vehicle. Man is a major part of the system - performing both high level direction and lower level control functions, but sharing these functions with some onboard autonomy. This paper discusses the technical challenges and the role of man in such a system, and results from recent simulation studies.
Technical Paper

Review of NASA Antiskid Braking Research

NASA antiskid braking system research programs are reviewed. These programs include experimental studies of four antiskid systems on the Langley Landing Loads Track, flight tests with a DC-9 airplane, and computer simulation studies. Results from these research efforts include identification of factors contributing to degraded antiskid performance under adverse weather conditions, tire tread temperature measurements during antiskid braking on dry runway surfaces, and an assessment of the accuracy of various brake pressure-torque computer models. This information should lead to the development of better antiskid systems in the future.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Over the Rear End of a Notchback Automobile Configuration

An experimental investigation of the flow over the rear end of a 0.16 scale notchback automobile configuration has been conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The objective of this work was to investigate the flow separation that occurs behind the backlight and obtain experimental data that can be used to understand the physics and time-averaged structure of the flow field. A three-component laser velocimeter was used to make non-intrusive, velocity measurements in the center plane and in a single cross-flow plane over the decklid. In addition to off-body measurements, flow conditions on the car surface were documented via surface flow visualization, boundary layer measurements, and surface pressures.
Technical Paper

Wingtip Vortex Turbine Investigation for Vortex Energy Recovery

A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15° twist (washin) and one with no twist. The power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.
Technical Paper

NASA Evaluation of Type II Chemical Depositions

Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type II chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32-96 km/hr (20-60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a General Aviation Airplane Equipped With a High Aspect-Ratio, Natural-Laminar-Flow Wing

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to evaluate the performance and stability and control characteristics of a full-scale general aviation airplane equipped with a natural-laminar-flow wing. The study focused on the effects of natural laminar flow and boundary layer transition, and on the effects of several wing leading-edge modifications designed to improve the stall resistance of the configuration. Force and moment data were measured over wide angle-of-attack and sideslip ranges and at Reynolds numbers from 1.4 × 106 to 2.1 × 106 based on the mean aerodynamic chord. Additional measurements were made using hot-film and sublimating-chemical techniques to determine the condition of the wing boundary layer, and wool tufts were used to study the wing stalling characteristics. The investigation showed that large regions of natural laminar flow existed on the wing which would significantly enhance the cruise performance of the configuration.
Technical Paper

The Laminar Separation Sensor: An Advanced Transition Measurement Method for Use in Wind Tunnels and Flight

Current viscous drag reduction research explores the limits of practical applications of natural laminar flow (NLF) for airplane drag reduction. To better understand these limits, advanced measurement techniques are required to study the characteristics of laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition. Recent NASA research indicates that the transition mode which involves laminar separation can be detected using arrayed hot-film laminar separation sensor concepts. These surface-mounted sensors can provide information on the location of the laminar separation bubble as well as bubble length. This paper presents two different laminar separation sensor configurations developed in the NASA program and presents results of wind-tunnel and flight evaluations of the sensors as tools to detect boundary-layer transition.