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Technical Paper

Controls for Agility Research in the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program

1991-09-01
912148
Emerging advanced controls technology will allow future generation fighter aircraft to aggressively maneuver at high angles-of-attack. Currently there is a need to develop flight-validated design methodologies and guidelines to effectively integrate this technology into future aircraft. As part of the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program (HATP), advanced controls technology is being developed in ground-based research and demonstrated using the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) as a flying testbed. Efforts are in progress to develop flight validated control law design methodologies and design guidelines which could be used to effectively exploit the capabilities provided by advanced controls at high angles of attack. This paper outlines this research effort and summarizes the design process and preliminary methodologies and guidelines developed to date.
Technical Paper

26 X 6.6 Radial-Belted Aircraft Tire Performance

1991-09-01
912157
Preliminary results from testing of 26 X 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, on going joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving three different tire sizes. The 26 X 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 X 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Summary of Recent Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Friction Measurement Tests

1988-10-01
881403
Tests with specially instrumented NASA B-737 and B-727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices have been conducted for a variety of runway surface types and wetness conditions. This effort is part of the Joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow-, and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed together with ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the relationship between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, and surface contaminant type are discussed.
Technical Paper

Fore-and-Aft Stiffness and Damping Characteristics of 30 × 11.5 −14.5, Type VIII, Bias-Ply and Radial-Belted Aircraft Tires

1988-10-01
881357
An investigation was conducted to determine the fore and aft elastic response characteristics and footprint geometrical properties of 30 × 11.5 −14.5, Type VIII, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires. Stiffness and damping characteristics of each tire were obtained from load-deflection curves generated from static tests. Tire footprints were obtained for various vertical loads, and geometrical measurements were obtained from the resulting silhouettes. Results of this investigation show considerable differences in stiffness and damping characteristics between the bias-ply and radial-belted tire designs. Footprint geometrical data indicate that footprint aspect ratio effects may interfere with improved hydroplaning potential associated with the radial-belted tire operating at higher inflation pressures. Tire-wheel slippage problems encountered when testing the radial-belted tire design required special attention.
Technical Paper

Spin-Up Studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire

1988-10-01
881360
One of the factors needed to describe the wear behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tires is their behavior during the spin-up process. An experimental investigation of tire spin-up processes was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). During the investigation, the influence of various parameters such as forward speed and sink speed on tire spin-up forces were evaluated. A mathematical model was developed to estimate drag forces and spin-up times and is presented. The effect of prerotation was explored and is discussed. Also included is a means of determining the sink speed of the orbiter at touchdown based upon the appearance of the rubber deposits left on the runway during spinup.
Technical Paper

Unique Research Challenges for High-Speed Civil Transports

1987-11-13
872400
Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a new generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with new technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research have been identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Modifications to Improve the Spin Resistance of a High-Wing, Single-Engine, Light Airplane

1989-04-01
891039
Airplane flight tests have been conducted to determine the effects of wing leading-edge modifications and a ventral fin addition on the spin resistance of a typical high-wing, single-engine, general aviation airplane. Drooped wing leading-edge modifications which improve lateral stability at high angles of attack were tested in combination with a ventral fin that improves directional stability. Each modification was evaluated using spin resistance criteria which have been proposed for incorporation into the Federal Aviation Regulations for certification of light aircraft. The best configuration tested, a combination of outboard wing leading-edge droop and a ventral fin, provided a very significant increase in overall airplane spin resistance, but was not sufficient to satisfy all requirements of the spin resistance criteria.
Technical Paper

Cornering and Wear Characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Nose-Gear Tire

1989-09-01
892347
Tests of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire have been completed at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. The purpose of these tests was to determine the cornering and wear characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire under realistic operating conditions. The tire was tested on a simulated Kennedy Space Center runway surface at speeds from 100 to 180 kts. The results of these tests defined the cornering characteristics which included side forces and associated side force friction coefficient over a range of yaw angles from 0° to 12°. Wear characteristics were defined by tire tread and cord wear over a yaw angle range of 0° to 4° under dry and wet runway conditions. Wear characteristics were also defined for a 15 kt crosswind landing with two blown right main-gear tires and nose-gear steering engaged.
Technical Paper

Stability Characteristics of a Conical Aerospace Plane Concept

1989-09-01
892313
Wind tunnel investigations were conducted as part of an effort to develop a stability and control database for an aerospace plane concept across a broad range of Mach numbers. The generic conical design used in these studies represents one of a number of concepts being studied for this class of vehicle. The baseline configuration incorporated a 5° cone forebody, a 75.96° delta wing, a 16°leading-edge sweep deployable canard and a centerline vertical tail. Tests were conducted in the following NASA-Langley facilities spanning a Mach range of 0.1 to 6:30- by 60-Foot Tunnel,14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, National Transonic Facility, Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 20 Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Data were collected for a number of model geometry variations and test conditions in each facility. This paper highlights some of the key results of these investigations pertinent to stability considerations about all three axes.
Technical Paper

Hypersonic CFD Applications for the National Aero-Space Plane

1989-09-01
892310
The design and analysis of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) depends heavily on developing critical technology areas through the Technology Maturation Program (TMP). The TMP is being completed almost entirely in government laboratories with technology dissemination to all prime NASP contractors immediately upon completion of any portion of the technology development. These critical technology areas span the entire engineering design of the vehicle; included are structures, materials, propulsion systems, propellants, propulsion/airframe integration, controls, subsystems, and aerodynamics areas. There is currently a heavy dependence on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for verification of many of the classical engineering tools. Quite often the design of an aircraft uses wind tunnel tests for much of this verification, but for NASP, this task is almost impossible from a practical standpoint.
Technical Paper

Transition Research in the Mach 3.5 Low-Disturbance Wind Tunnel and Comparisons of Data with Theory

1989-09-01
892379
Supersonic wind tunnels with much lower stream disturbance levels than in conventional tunnels are required to advance transition research. The ultimate objectives of this research are to provide reliable predictions of transition from laminar to turbulent flow on supersonic flight vehicles and to develop techniques for the control and reduction of viscous drag and heat transfer. The experimental and theoretical methods used at NASA Langley to develop a low-disturbance pilot tunnel are described. Typical transition data obtained in this tunnel are compared with flight and previous wind-tunnel data and with predictions from linear stability theory,
Technical Paper

Flight Tests Using Data Link for Air Traffic Control and Weather Information Exchange

1990-09-01
901888
Message exchange for air traffic control (ATC) purposes via data link offers the potential benefits of increasing the airspace system safety and efficiency. This is accomplished by reducing communication errors and relieving the overloaded ATC radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchanges during peak traffic periods in many busy terminal areas. However, the many uses and advantages of data link create additional questions concerning the interface among the human-users and the cockpit and ground systems. A flight test was conducted in the NASA Langley B-737 airplane to contrast flight operations using current voice communications with the use of data link for transmitting both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airline flight from takeoff to landing. Commercial airplane pilots were used as test subjects.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Radial-Belted Tire Evaluation

1990-09-01
901913
An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.
Technical Paper

Multirole Cargo Aircraft Options and Configurations

1979-02-01
791096
A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Subfloor Response to Crash Loadings

1981-02-01
810614
Results are presented of an experimental and analytical study of the dynamic response to crash loadings of five different load-limiting subfloors for general aviation aircraft. These subfloors provide a high-strength structural floor platform to retain the seats and a crush-able zone to absorb energy and limit vertical loads. Experimental static load-deflection data and dynamic deceleration response data for the five subfloors indicated that the high-strength floor platform performed well in that structural integrity and residual strength was maintained throughout the loading cycle. The data also indicated that some of the subfloor crush zones were more effective than others in providing nearly constant load for a range of displacement. The analytical data was generated by characterizing the nonlinear crush zones of the subfloor with static load-deflection data and using the DYCAST nonlinear finite element computer program.
Technical Paper

Leading-Edge Design for improved Spin Resistance of Wings Incorporating Conventional and Advanced Airfoils

1985-10-01
851816
Discontinuous wing leading-edge droop designs have been evaluated as a means of modifying wing autorotative characteristics and thus improving airplane spin resistance. Addition of a discontinuous outboard wing leading-edge droop to three typical light airplanes having NACA 6-series wing sections produced significant improvements in stall characteristics and spin resistance. Wind tunnel tests of two wings having advanced natural laminar flow airfoil sections indicated that a discontinuous leading-edge droop can delay the onset of autorotation at high angles of attack without adversely affecting the development of laminar flow at cruise angles of attack.
Technical Paper

NASA Experiments Onboard the Controlled Impact Demonstration

1985-10-01
851885
On December 1, 1984, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) conducted the first remotely-piloted air-to-ground crash test of a transport category aircraft. The Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was the culmination of four years of effort by the two agencies. NASA and the FAA had many objectives during the joint planning and conduct of the Controlled Impact Demonstration. NASA's interest was primarily structural crashworthiness. The FAA's primary interest was the demonstration of an antimisting fuel additive's performance. Demonstration of improved crashworthy design features was a secondary objective for the FAA. This paper is a report on the NASA experiments conducted during the CID. A portion of the preliminary structural loads data was released to the public at a Government/Industry CID Workshop held April 10, 1985, at Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia.
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