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Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Forced Regeneration of Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0912
A computational model which describes the combustion and heat transfer that takes place during forced regeneration of honeycomb structured wall flow type diesel particulate filter was developed. In this model, heat released by the soot- oxygen reaction, convection heat transfer in the gas phase, conductive heat transfer in solid walls, and heat transfer between the gas and wall of each honeycomb cell at various radial positions in a filter are calculated. Each honeycomb cell was modeled as one solid phase and two gas phases and these three phases were divided in the axial direction into small elements. Conductive heat transfer between the small solid elements and convection heat transfer between the small gas elements were calculated for each small time increment. Conductive radial heat transfer between honeycomb cells was also calculated.
Technical Paper

Design Development of High Temperature Manifold Converter Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrate

1997-02-24
971030
This paper proposes a high temperature manifold converter with a thin wall ceramic substrate, such as; 4mil/400cpsi and 4mil/600cpsi. Double-wall cone insulation design was proposed for close-coupled converters to protect the conventional intumescent mat from high temperature. However, the double wall cone insulation is not applicable when the converter is directly mounted to the exhaust manifold without an inlet cone. The prototype manifold converter was tested under hot vibration test with a non-intumescent ceramic fiber mat and retainer rings as a supplemental support. The converter demonstrated durability for 10 hours under 80G acceleration and 100 hours under 60G acceleration with 1,050 °C catalyst bed temperature. The skin temperature of the heat shield was kept below 400 °C.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

A Structurally Durable EHC for the Exhaust Manifold

1994-03-01
940466
It is well known that an EHC (Electrically Heated Catalyst) is very effective in reducing cold start HC emissions. However, the large electric power consumption of the EHC is a major technical issue. When installed in the exhaust manifold, the EHC can take advantage of exhaust heat to warm up faster, resulting in a reduced electric power demand. Therefore, a structurally durable EHC which can withstand the severe manifold conditions is desirable. Through the use of a extruded monolithic metal substrate, with a flexible hexagonal cell structure and a special canning method, we have succeeded in developing a structurally durable EHC. This new EHC installed in the exhaust manifold with a light-off catalyst directly behind it demonstrated a drastic reduction in FTP (Federal Test Procedure) Total HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Wall-Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter System with Efficient Reverse Pulse Air Regeneration

1995-02-01
950735
A wall-flow type diesel particulate filter system with reverse pulse air developed for vehicles should have the best regeneration performance possible with the least reverse pulse air as possible. We improved the reverse pulse air arrangement to decrease the air consumption and raise regeneration performance. Then, we developed diesel particulate filter (DPF) materials for the pore structure suitable for regeneration. Test equipment was designed to consume less air than a previous prototype system presented in our SAE paper [1]. The experiments used a soot generator simulating a diesel engine and a diesel engine. We confirmed that a wall-flow type DPF could possibly be applied to a regeneration system with the low air consumption for mounting on vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Automotive Catalyst using a Thin Wall (4 mil/400cpsi) Substrate

1996-02-01
960557
Since the monolithic ceramic substrate was introduced for automotive catalytic converters, the reduction of the substrate wall thickness has been a continuing requirement to reduce pressure drop and improve catalytic performance. The thin wall substrate of 0.10 mm (4 mil) thick wall/400 cpsi cell density has been introduced to production by achieving mechanical strength equivalent to a conventional 0.15 mm (6 mil)/400 cpsi substrate. Although a round cross-section substrate can have a reduced catalyst volume compared to an oval cross-section substrate because of uniform gas flow distribution, the smaller cross-section of the round substrate increases pressure drop. The thin wall technology was applied to the round substrate to offset the pressure drop increase and to further improve catalytic performance.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reliability and Performance Improvement of Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter

1996-02-01
960565
This paper proposes a high temperature catalytic converter design using a ceramic substrate and intumescent matting. It also describes the improvement of converter performance using an advanced thin wall ceramic substrate. Due to future tightening of emission regulations and improvement of fuel economy, higher exhaust gas temperatures are suggested. Therefore, reduction of thermal reliability of an intumescent mat will be a concern because the catalytic converter will be exposed to high temperatures. For this reason, a new design converter has been developed using a dual cone structure for both the inlet and outlet cones. This minimizes heat conduction through the cone and decreases the temperature affecting the mat area. This design converter, without the use of a heat-shield, reduces the converter surface temperature to 441°C despite a catalyst bed temperature of 1050°C. The long term durability of the converter is demonstrated by the hot vibration test.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Cold Start Emissions

1997-02-24
970266
In order to meet the strict automobile emission regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, new aftertreatment technologies such as the EHC and HC Adsorber have been developed to reduce the cold start emissions. The EHC is obviously effective in reducing emissions, but has the demerits of a large electric power demand and a complicated power control system to support it (13). A by-pass type HC adsorber system has the concerns of unreliable by-pass valves and complicated plumbing (10). A major technical challenge of the in-line type HC adsorber was the difference between the HC desorption temperature and the light-off temperature of the burn-off catalyst. This paper describes the evaluation results of a completely passive “In-line HC Adsorber System” which can reduce the cold start emissions without the application of any type of mechanical or pneumatic control valve in the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

The Regeneration Efficiency Improvement of the Reverse Pulse Air Regenerating DPF System

1996-02-01
960127
This paper describes the system modification through the improvement of pulse air penetration into the DPF cell channels in respect to the development of a wall-flow type diesel particulate filter ( DPF ) system with reverse pulse air regeneration for diesel vehicles. In this system, regeneration becomes more difficult with low exhaust gas temperatures and increased DPF volume. The pressure increase in the DPF cell channels was monitored as a parameter of pulse air penetration when reverse pulse air was injected into the DPF. By maximizing the pressure increase, the pulse air injection system was modified. The modification includes various changes in the air pipe arrangement and the air injecting time. The ratio of the length to the diameter of the DPF was also evaluated in relation to the regeneration efficiency. In this study, the high aspect ratio, i.e. small diameter and long DPF, showed better regeneration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of Wall-Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter System with Reverse Pulse Air Regeneration

1994-03-01
940237
The effects of the factors of reverse pulse air regeneration; pulse air pressure, pulse air time and pulse air interval, were evaluated. Pulse air pressure significantly affects a DPF's pressure drop increase. Pulse air time and pulse air interval do not greatly affect a DPF's pressure drop. Current DPFs and samples with modified materials were tested. The pressure drop increse varied with the material properties, such as mean pore size and porosity. Current DPFs are applicable to a DPF system with reverse pulse air regeneration. There is the possibility to get an optimum DPF for the reverse pulse air regeneration system by changing the mean pore size, porosity and/or other properties.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Location Achieved with a Curve Catalytic Honeycomb Substrate

1994-03-01
940743
A new type of catalytic converter has been developed for the coming TLEV (Transitional Low Emission Vehicle) standards. It is a “Front Curve Catalytic Converter (FCCC)” using a curved cordierite ceramic honeycomb substrate. During this development, an optimum location and volume of the front curve catalytic converter were determined from the view points of thermal deterioration of the catalyst and hydrocarbon conversion performance. Based on CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) analysis, the best curvature radius of the substrate was selected to minimize a pressure drop of the front curve catalytic converter. The emission conversion and light-off performances of the front curve catalytic converter were compared with a conventional straight design. A series of durability tests; hot vibration, engine dynamometer and vehicle fleet tests were also conducted to confirm the reliability of the new front curve catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Effects of DPF Volume on Thermal Shock Failures during Regeneration

1989-02-01
890173
Application of ceramic honeycomb wall-flow type diesel particulate filters (DPF) to heavy duty vehicles requires a large volume filter. Heavy duty vehicles produce a large volume exhaust gas, and pressure drop in the exhaust system must be maintained to a certain level. In addition, the filters must be designed to resist fracture from thermal stresses during regeneration. This is particularly important in heavy duty vehicles because of these extended mileage requirements. These studies of the effects of DPF volume on thermal shock resistance during regeneration reveal that the maximum failure temperatures are lower as DPF volume is increased, still maintaining 950°C maximum temperature with 12 ℓ volume and 9″D × 12″L size large DPF. Some thermal stress analyses with temperature profiles and finite element analysis were conducted on four different volume DPF during regeneration.
Technical Paper

Electric Heating Regeneration of Large Wall-Flow Type DPF

1991-02-01
910136
Ceramic wall-flow type diesel particulate filters (DPF) are being investigated for the aftertreatment systems of heavy duty engines. To use ceramic DPF more reliably and easily, electric heating regenerations are studied varying combustion air flow rates and amounts of accumulated soot. Despite electric heater capacity limitations, it is possible to regenerate DPF at a certain combustion air flow rate without thermal shock failure. The maximum withstood temperature against thermal shock failure of electric heating regeneration is similar to that of diesel burner regeneration on DPF with a nine inch diameter and a twelve inch length.
Technical Paper

Lifetime Prediction of Wall-Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filters Using Fatigue Characteristics

1993-03-01
930128
Lifetimes of DPF under various thermal stress cycles were calculated based on the slow crack growth theory and expected lifetimes were investigated in relation to maximum temperature during regenerations. The fatigue characteristics of porous honeycomb structures follow the slow crack growth theory. Maximum thermal stress was calculated from temperature distributions of failed DPF. The ratio of 4-point bending strength to maximum thermal stress was used as a correction factor. The thermal stress was calculated from various temperature distributions and then modified with the correction factor. These results were compared with the fatigue characteristics obtained from 4-point bending fatigue tests.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Controlling of Heating Rates for Safe Regeneration of Ceramic Honeycomb Diesel Particulate Filter

1988-02-01
880002
Thermal shock failures have been considered as one of the most significant issues for wall flow type ceramic diesel particulate filters during their regeneration. This paper describes the experiments which were conducted in order to study effects of heating rates of the accumulated diesel particulate on the thermal shock failure of the filters using an NGK soot generator. The results showed favorable heating rates of the particulate in terms of the amounts of the accumulated particulate up to which the filters are safely regenerated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Structure on Regeneration Failure of Ceramic Honeycomb Diesel Particulate Filter

1987-02-01
870010
In applying ceramic honeycomb wall flow type filters to the after-treatment systems of diesel particulate from engines, the melting and thermal shock failures of ceramic diesel particulate filters (DPF) have been considered as one of the most significant issues during regeneration. This paper gives the results of experiments on the effects of cell structure i.e., wall thickness and cell density, on the melting and thermal shock regeneration failure of DPF and proposes an optimized cell structure for DPF in terms of the regeneration failure and the pressure drop which is also considered to be one of the especially important issues in fuel economy for heavy duty vehicle application.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Pore Size Distribution of Wall Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter

1992-02-01
920144
To reduce flow restriction of the wall flow type diesel particulate filters, the pore size distribution of DPF material was improved. Large pore material is preferred to reduce the flow restriction of the DPF. However pore diameter should be controlled within a certain limit to maintain high trapping efficiency against diesel particulates. In order to solve these conflicting matters, the mean pore diameter was enlarged from 13μm of the current material to 20 μm or more, while maintaining the cumulative volume of pores above 100μm within 8% of the total pore volume. The safe limit against thermal shock failure of the improved DPF material having 9″D x 12″/, 12.5/ volume was also determined using diesel burner regeneration system.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

1991-02-01
910302
In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
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