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Technical Paper

Simulation of Road Crash Facial Lacerations By Broken Windshields

1987-02-23
870320
The facial laceration test has been proposed as an addition to the dummy injury criteria of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208. To better understand laceration conditions as they actually occur, three road crashes of increasing severity, all involving facial laceration by the broken (cracked) windshield and one involving partial ejection, have been simulated physically and analytically. The physical simulations used vehicle test bucks, the Hybrid III head with the chamois facial coverings of the facial laceration test, and a piston - constrained Head Impactor. Computer simulations of the three crashes were also carried out using the CALSPAN 3D “CVS” and the 2D “DRISIM” computer programs. The computer simulations provide insight into the effective mass of the head and body on windshield contact, and the forces, velocities, and accelerations involved.
Technical Paper

A Review of Motor Vehicle Glazing-Related Ejection Injuries

1993-03-01
930740
A review was conducted of injuries associated with ejection through motor vehicle glazing, using the 1988 through 1991 National Accident Sampling System data maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The review indicated that one percent of the occupants in towaway crashes were ejected and that 22 percent of fatalities in towaway crashes were ejected. Fifty-three percent of complete ejections were through the glazing openings in motor vehicles. Current motor vehicle glazing does not contribute significantly to occupant injuries, but the effects of glazing changes on serious injuries will need to be considered.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Injuries and the Downsizing of Cars

1983-02-01
830050
The Pedestrian Injury Causation Study (PICS) is used to investigate the relations between car weight and pedestrian injuries in frontal accidents. As car curb weight decreased, large changes in overall severity are not observed, although the proportion of head injuries increases. Since contacts of the windshield area are more common in smaller cars, they are studied in detail.
Technical Paper

Light Vehicle Occupant Protection - Top and Rear Structures and Interiors

1982-02-01
820244
This paper addresses serious, occupant crash injuries from: (a) head impacts with A-pillars, roof headers, and roof side rails, and (b) occupant entrapment and roof intrusion in rollover accidents. It also discusses two less frequent causes of injury: (a) fires in crashes, and (b) occupant ejection through the roof and rear window or rear doors. The paper estimates the relative frequencies of these types of injuries, classified according to the body area injured and the vehicle interior component responsible for the injury. Data for these estimates is from the National Crash Severity Study augmented by the 1979 Fatal Accident Reporting System data. Also, this paper addresses the potential for reducing the severity of these injuries in light motor vehicles, with particular emphasis on AIS 3 and more serious injuries.
Technical Paper

Light Vehicle Frontal Impact Protection

1982-02-01
820243
This paper addresses the protection of occupants in light vehicles. It presents data and techniques for identifying and measuring potential crashworthiness improvements that would mitigate injuries to occupants striking frontal interior components such as the steering wheel, instrument panel and windshield. Both restrained and unrestrained occupants can be injured by frontal interior components in crashes. The focus of this paper is on the unrestrained occupant. However, performance criteria and associated countermeasures will have to be developed considering the differences in the mechanisms of injury to both the restrained and unrestrained occupants. Work on the restrained occupant and the similarities and differences between both conditions remains to be considered. The paper presents information on the magnitude and types of injuries received from frontal interior components and on how the performance of these components and the vehicle structure affect the resultant injuries.
Technical Paper

Response of the Eurosid-1 Thorax to Lateral Impact

1999-03-01
1999-01-0709
The Eurosid-1 dummy was subjected to a series of lateral and oblique pendulum impacts to study the anomalous “flat-top” thorax deflection versus time-histories observed in full-scale vehicle tests. The standard Eurosid-1, as well as two different modified versions of the dummy, were impacted at 6 different angles from -15 to +20 degrees (0 degrees is pure lateral) in the horizontal plane. The flat-top deflections were observed in the tests with the standard Eurosid-1, while one of the modified versions reduced the flat-top considerably. Full scale vehicle tests with the standard and modified Eurosid-1 suggest similar reductions. A second series of tests was conducted on the modified Eurosid-1 to investigate the effect of door surface friction on the shoulder rotation and the chest deflection. The data suggested that increasing the friction on the door surface impeded shoulder rotation and ultimately reduced the chest deflection in the Eurosid-1.
Technical Paper

Large school bus safety restraint evaluation

2001-06-04
2001-06-0158
This paper describes ongoing research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to evaluate the potential of safety restraints on large school buses. School bus transportation is one of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. Large school buses provide protection because of their visibility, size, and weight, as compared to other types of motor vehicles. Additionally, they are required to meet minimum Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) mandating compartmentalized seating, emergency exits, roof crush and fuel system integrity, and minimum bus body joint strength.
Technical Paper

Accelerometers Equivalency in Dummy Crash Testing

1996-02-01
960454
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has initiated research to develop performance specifications for dummy-based accelerometers in the crash test environment, and to provide criteria for defining and establishing equivalent performance among accelerometers from different manufacturers. These research efforts are within the general guidelines on transducer equivalency outlined in the current revision of the Society of Automotive Engineers recommended practice, Instrumentation for Impact Test, SAE 211/2 March 1995. Representative data from vehicle crash and component level tests have been analyzed to determine the acceleration levels and frequency content in a realistic dynamic environment for dummy-based accelerometers.
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