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Technical Paper

Response of PMHS to High- and Low-Speed Oblique and Lateral Pneumatic Ram Impacts

2011-11-07
2011-22-0011
In ISO Technical Report 9790 (1999) normalized lateral and oblique thoracic force-time responses of PMHS subjected to blunt pendulum impacts at 4.3 m/s were deemed sufficiently similar to be grouped together in a single biomechanical response corridor. Shaw et al., (2006) presented results of paired oblique and lateral thoracic pneumatic ram impact tests to opposite sides of seven PMHS at sub-injurious speed (2.5 m/s). Normalized responses showed that oblique impacts resulted in more deflection and less force, whereas lateral impacts resulted in less deflection and more force. This study presents results of oblique and lateral thoracic impacts to PMHS at higher speeds (4.5 and 5.5 m/s) to assess whether lateral relative to oblique responses are different as observed by Shaw et al., or similar as observed by ISO.
Technical Paper

Comparative Performance Testing of Passenger Cars Relative to Fmvss 214 and the Ue 96/Ec/27 Side Impact Regulations: Phase I

1998-05-31
986168
Based on a long recognized need, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has begun to reexamine the potential for international harmonization of side impact requirements. To this end, NHTSA, as directed by the U.S. Congress, has recently submitted a report to the Congress on the agency plans for achieving harmonization of the U.S. and European side impact regulations. The first phase of this plan involves crash testing vehicles compliant to FMVSS 214 to the European Union side impact directive 96/27/EC. This paper presents the results to date of this research. The level of safety performance of the vehicles based on the injury measures of the European and U.S. side impact regulations is assessed.
Technical Paper

NHTSA's Frontal Offset Research Program

2004-03-08
2004-01-1169
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the use of the 40 percent offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash test procedure to reduce death and injury, in particular debilitating lower extremity injuries in frontal offset collisions. This paper presents the results of 22 ODB crash tests conducted with 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female Hybrid III (HIII) dummies fitted with advanced lower legs, Thor-Lx/HIIIr and Thor-FLx/HIIIr, to assess the potential for debilitating and costly lower limb injuries. This paper also begins to investigate the implications that the ODB test procedure may have for fleet compatibility by evaluating the results from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for a Compatibility Test Procedure

2002-03-04
2002-01-1022
A major focus of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) vehicle compatibility and aggressivity research program is the development of a laboratory test procedure to evaluate compatibility. This paper is written to explain the associated goals, issues, and design considerations and to review the preliminary results from this ongoing research program. One of NHTSA's activities supporting the development of a test procedure involves investigating the use of an mobile deformable barrier (MDB) into vehicle test to evaluate both the self-protection (crashworthiness) and the partner-protection (compatibility) of the subject vehicle. For this development, the MDB is intended to represent the median or expected crash partner. This representiveness includes such vehicle characteristics as weight, size, and frontal stiffness. This paper presents distributions of vehicle measurements based on 1996 fleet registration data.
Technical Paper

Accelerometers Equivalency in Dummy Crash Testing

1996-02-01
960454
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has initiated research to develop performance specifications for dummy-based accelerometers in the crash test environment, and to provide criteria for defining and establishing equivalent performance among accelerometers from different manufacturers. These research efforts are within the general guidelines on transducer equivalency outlined in the current revision of the Society of Automotive Engineers recommended practice, Instrumentation for Impact Test, SAE 211/2 March 1995. Representative data from vehicle crash and component level tests have been analyzed to determine the acceleration levels and frequency content in a realistic dynamic environment for dummy-based accelerometers.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of J-Turn and Fishhook Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1008
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed in 2001, starting in the spring and continuing through the fall. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 1” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from one Characterization maneuver (the Slowly Increasing Steer maneuver) and four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are discussed (the NHTSA J-Turn, Fishhook 1a, Fishhook 1b, and Nissan Fishhook). Details regarding NHTSA's assessment of the Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are available in “Volume 2” [2].
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of Double Lane Change Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1009
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed during the spring through fall of 2001. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 2” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are presented. The Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are discussed. Details regarding the NHTSA J-Turn, and the three fishhook maneuvers are available in “Volume 1” [2].
Technical Paper

Development of THOR-FLx: A Biofidelic Lower Extremity for Use with 5th Percentile Female Crash Test Dummies

2002-11-11
2002-22-0014
A new lower leg/ankle/foot system has been designed and fabricated to assess the potential for lower limb injuries to small females in the automotive crash environment. The new lower extremity can be retrofitted at present to the distal femur of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy. Future plans are for integration of this design into the 5th percentile female THOR dummy now under development. The anthropometry of the lower leg and foot is based mainly on data developed by Robbins for the 5th percentile female, while the biomechanical response requirements are based upon scaling of 50th percentile male THOR-Lx responses. The design consists of the knee, tibia, ankle joints, foot, a representation of the Achilles tendon, and associated flesh/skins. The new lower extremity, known as THOR-FLx, is designed to be biofidelic under dynamic axial loading of the tibia, static and dynamic dorsiflexion, static plantarflexion and inversion/eversion.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading

2016-11-07
2016-22-0004
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Vehicle Structural Integrity and Occupant Injury Potential in Full-frontal and Offset-frontal Crash Tests

2000-03-06
2000-01-0879
The frontal crash standard in the USA specifies that the full front of a vehicle impact a rigid barrier. Subsequently, the European Union developed a frontal crash standard that requires 40 percent of the front of a vehicle to impact a deformable barrier. The present study conducted paired crashes of vehicles using the full-frontal barrier procedure and the 40 percent offset deformable barrier procedure. In part, the study was to examine the feasibility of adding an offset test procedure to the frontal crash standard in the USA. Frontal-offset and full-frontal testing was conducted using both the mid-size (50th percentile male Hybrid III) and the small stature (5th percentile female Hybrid III) dummies. Five vehicle models were used in the testing: Dodge Neon, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, Chevrolet Venture and Ford Contour. In the crash tests, all dummies were restrained with the available safety belt systems and frontal air bags.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of injury risk from side impact air bags

2001-06-04
2001-06-0091
Several thoracic and head protection side impact air bag systems (SAB) are emerging in the U.S. market and are projected to become prevalent in the fleet. These systems appear to offer superior protection in side crashes. However, concerns have been raised as to their potential for causing injury to out-of-position (OOP) occupants. This paper describes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) program for evaluation of the SAB systems for OOP occupants and provides a status report on the current research. The industry's Side Airbag Out-of- Position Injury Technical Working Group (TWG) recommended procedures for 3-year-old and 6-year-old occupants are evaluated. Additional test procedures are described to augment the TWG procedures for these occupants and 12-month- old infants.
Technical Paper

Enhancing post-crash vehicle safety through an automatic collision notification system

2001-06-04
2001-06-0085
In August of 2000, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) completed an Automated Collision Notification (ACN) Field Operational Test (FOT) in Erie County, New York, that combined crash sensing, position location, and wireless communications technology in a system with the goal of saving lives and reducing disabilities from injuries by providing faster and more informed emergency medical responses to serious injury crashes. The ACN FOT Team designed and built an ACN system prior to the start of the test period in July 1997. ACN in-vehicle systems were than installed in 850 vehicles. The crash notification messages were delivered to emergency response and dispatch equipment installed at the Erie County Sheriff's Office, which served as the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) for this FOT.
Technical Paper

NHTSA'S crashworthiness modelling activities

2001-06-04
2001-06-0178
NHTSA uses a variety of computer modelling techniques to develop and evaluate test methods and mitigation concepts, and to estimate safety benefits for many of NHTSA's research activities. Computer modeling has been particularly beneficial for estimating safety benefits where often very little data are available. Also modeling allows researchers to augment test data by simulating crashes over a wider range of conditions than would otherwise be feasible. These capabilities are used for a wide range of projects from school bus to frontal, side, and rollover research programs. This paper provides an overview of these activities. NHTSA's most extensive modeling research involves developing finite element and articulated mass models to evaluate a range of vehicles and crash environments. These models are being used to develop a fleet wide systems model for evaluating compatibility issues.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian head impact testing and PCDS reconstructions

2001-06-04
2001-06-0184
Pedestrian research and testing at the NHTSA Vehicle Research and Test Center has recently focused on assessment of proposed ISO and EEVC head impact test procedures, and extension of these procedures to additional vehicle frontal surfaces. In addition to test parameter sensitivity evaluation, reconstruction of PCDS (Pedestrian Crash Data Study) cases with laboratory impact tests and computer simulations has been conducted. This paper presents the results of this research.
Technical Paper

NHTSA'S research program for vehicle aggressivity and fleet compatibility

2001-06-04
2001-06-0179
This paper presents an overview of NHTSA's vehicle aggressivity and fleet compatibility research activities. This research program is being conducted in close cooperation with the International Harmonized Research Agenda (IHRA) compatibility research group. NHTSA is monitoring the changing vehicle mix in the U.S. fleet, analyzing crash statistics, and evaluating any implications that these changes may have for U.S. occupant safety. NHTSA is also continuing full-scale crash testing to develop a better understanding of vehicle compatibility and to investigate test methods to assess vehicle compatibility.
Technical Paper

Rear-end collision warning system field operational test~Status report

2001-06-04
2001-06-0205
This paper provides an overview of a cooperative research program between General Motors Corporation and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to conduct a field operational test of a rear-end collision warning system. A description of the system architecture is also presented.
Technical Paper

Field Operational Test Results of An Automated Collision Notification System

2000-11-01
2000-01-C041
This paper describes a Field Operational Test (FOT) of an Automated Collision Notification (ACN) System, a new way to provide definitive pre- hospital medical care to people injured in motor vehicle crashes. This FOT is part of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) research being conducted under the U.S. Department of Transportation's Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program. Management of the program is by the Office of Vehicle Safety Research in NHTSA. The ACN FOT is a demonstration of the application of advanced technology for the improvement of pre-hospital emergency care for motor-vehicle crash victims. The test, involving approximately 850 volunteers' vehicles, was conducted in rural Western New York State. A partnership of local public agencies and private corporations, led by Veridian, Inc., performed the test.
Technical Paper

Driver Crash Avoidance Behavior with ABS in an Intersection Incursion Scenario on Dry Versus Wet Pavement

1999-03-01
1999-01-1288
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed its Light Vehicle Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) Research Program in an effort to determine the cause (s) of the apparent increase in fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes as vehicles undergo a transition from conventional brakes to ABS. As part of this program, NHTSA conducted research examining driver crash avoidance behavior and the effects of ABS on drivers' ability to avoid a collision in a crash-imminent situation. The study described here was conducted on a test track under dry and wet pavement conditions to examine the effects of ABS versus conventional brakes, ABS brake pedal feedback level, and ABS instruction on driver behavior and crash avoidance performance. This study found that drivers do tend to brake and steer in realistic crash avoidance situations and that excessive steering can occur.
Technical Paper

Antilock Systems for Air-Braked Vehicles

1992-01-01
890113
When a heavy vehicle driver (or in fact a driver of any vehicle) makes a brake application that is too "hard" for conditions - especially when the vehicle is lightly loaded or empty and/or the road is wet or slippery - he is likely to lock some or all of his wheels. Under these conditions, the tractor can jackknife or the trailer can swing out of its lane (if it is a combination-unit vehicle) or the truck can spin out (if it is a single-unit vehicle). Incorporation of an antilock brake system addresses the wheel lock and resultant control loss.
Technical Paper

Brake System Safety Analysis

1971-02-01
710593
An important new technique in safety engineering for complex systems is the fault tree analysis method. The results of a motor vehicle brake system safety analysis using the fault tree technique are described. The work is directed toward the identification and ranking of brake system failure modes which may be critical as accident causation factors. Safety criticality for each failure mode is defined as the product of probability of occurrence and severity of effect on vehicle control. Failure data for the brake system components are obtained from maintenance and repair records of a large automobile leasing fleet. An effect scale is developed using a method for pooling expert judgements to obtain the relative ranking of various brake faults as to accident causation potential. The fault tree structure is employed to combine probability and effect to obtain the safety criticality value of each fault.
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