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Technical Paper

CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs per year primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on solutions to this challenge through the CoolCab project. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. To help assess and improve idle reduction solutions, the CoolCalc software tool was developed.
Journal Article

Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil-derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter.
Technical Paper

Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation.
Technical Paper

The Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions

In this work, the influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post three-way catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a General Motors (GM) 2.0L turbocharged spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production engine control unit (ECU) with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. U.S. federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at 10 selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm.
Technical Paper

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads.
Journal Article

Expanding the Experimental Capabilities of the Ignition Quality Tester for Autoigniting Fuels

This paper reports the development of new fuel ignition quality and combustion experiments performed using the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). Prior SAE papers (961182, 971636, 1999-01-3591, and 2001-01-3527) documented the development of the IQT constant volume combustion chamber experimental apparatus to measure ignition qualities of diesel-type fuels. The ASTM International test method D6890 was developed around the IQT device to allow the rapid determination of derived cetane number (DCN). Interest in chemical kinetic models for the ignition of diesel and biodiesel model compounds is increasing to support the development of advanced engines and fuels. However, rigorous experimental validation of these kinetic models has been limited for a variety of reasons. Shock tubes and rapid compression machines are typically limited to premixed gas-phase studies, for example.
Journal Article

Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

The objective of this research project was to compare the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from transit buses on as many as five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles to establish if there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Prior studies have shown that B20 can cause a small but significant increase in NOx emissions for some engines and duty cycles. Six buses spanning engine build years 1998 to 2011 were tested on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants research laboratory's heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic [California Air Resources Board (CARB)] diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles.
Technical Paper

Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all-electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel System Component Durability

An ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with three different biodiesel samples at 5 and 20 volume percent. The biodiesel fuels were derived from rapeseed and soybean oils, and in addition, a highly oxidized biodiesel was prepared from the soy biodiesel by oxidation under controlled conditions. A set of five elastomers commonly used in automotive fuel systems were examined before and after immersion in the six test blends and base fuel at 60°C for 1000 hours. The elastomers were evaluated for hardness, tensile strength, volume change and compression. Injector wear tests were also conducted on the base petrodiesel fuel and the biodiesel blends using a 500-hour test method developed for this study. Bosch VE (in-line) rotary pumps were evaluated for wear after testing for 500 hours on the base fuel, B5 and B20 test fuels. Additionally, a test procedure was developed to accelerate wear on common rail pumps over 500 hours.
Technical Paper

Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOX Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results

Increasing fuel costs and the desire for reduced dependence on foreign oil have brought the diesel engine to the forefront of future medium-duty vehicle applications in the United States due to its higher thermal efficiency and superior durability. One of the obstacles to the increased use of diesel engines in this platform is the Tier 2 emission standards. In order to succeed, diesel vehicles must comply with emissions standards while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as common rail fuel injection systems, low-sulfur diesel fuel, oxides of nitrogen (NOX) adsorber catalysts or NACs, and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allows for the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with these future requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in several test projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Technical Paper

Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration. The emission control devices included a deNOx filter and a diesel particle filter. Over the transient test, the emissions met the 2007 standards. In July 2004, the modified engine was installed into a Class 8 tractor for use by a grocery fleet. Chassis emission testing of the modified vehicle was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) facility. Testing included hot and cold replicate Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and New York Composite (NYComp) cycles and several steady-state points. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate the vehicle's with the modified engine.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT™ diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made. Bench scale fuel-engine compatibility testing showed the GTL fuel had cold flow properties suitable for year-round use in southern California and was additized to meet current lubricity standards. Bench scale elastomer compatibility testing returned results similar to those of CARB specification diesel fuel. The GTL fuel met or exceeded ASTM D975 fuel properties. Researchers used a chassis dynamometer to test emissions over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and New York City Bus (NYCB) cycles.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Fuels Derived from Oil Sands and Conventional Crude

The exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder version of a heavy-duty diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were studied using 12 diesel fuels derived from oil sands and conventional sources. The test fuels were blended from 22 refinery streams to produce four fuels (two from each source) at three different total aromatic levels (10, 20, and 30% by mass). The cetane numbers were held constant at 43. Exhaust emissions were measured using the AVL eight-mode steady-state test procedure. PM emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with two predictors, total aromatics and sulphur content. Sulphate emissions were found to be independent of the type of sulphur compound in the fuel. NOx emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with total aromatics and density as predictor variables. PM and NOx emissions were significantly significantly affected by fuel properties, but crude oil source did not play a role.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Indoor Vehicle Thermal Soak Tests to Outdoor Tests

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted outdoor vehicle thermal soak tests in Golden, Colorado, in September 2002. The same environmental conditions and vehicle were then tested indoors in two DaimlerChrysler test cells, one with metal halide lamps and one with infrared lamps. Results show that the vehicle's shaded interior temperatures correlated well with the outdoor data, while temperatures in the direct sun did not. The large lamp array situated over the vehicle caused the roof to be significantly hotter indoors. Yet, inside the vehicle, the instrument panel was cooler due to the geometry of the lamp array and the spectral difference between the lamps and sun. Results indicate that solar lamps effectively heat the cabin interior in indoor vehicle soak tests for climate control evaluation and SCO3 emissions tests. However, such lamps do not effectively assess vehicle skin temperatures and glazing temperatures.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst/Diesel Particle Filter System for a Heavy-Duty Engine During a 2000-Hour Endurance Test

In this study, a 15-L heavy-duty diesel engine and an emission control system consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts, NOx adsorber catalysts, and diesel particle filters were evaluated over the course of a 2000 hour aging study. The work is a follow-on to a previously documented development effort to establish system regeneration and sulfur management strategies. The study is one of five projects being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity. The primary objective of the study was to determine if the significant NOx and PM reduction efficiency (>90%) demonstrated in the development work could be maintained over time with a 15-ppm sulfur diesel fuel. The study showed that high NOx reduction efficiency can be restored after 2000 hours of operation and 23 desulfation cycles.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Fuel Economy Impact of “Cold-Start” for Reformed Gasoline Fuel Cell Vehicles

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) appear to be a promising solution for the future of clean and efficient personal transportation. Issues of how to generate the hydrogen and then store it on-board to provide satisfactory driving range must still be resolved before they can compete with conventional vehicles. Alternatively, FCVs could obtain hydrogen from on-board reforming of gasoline or other fuels such as methanol or ethanol. On-board reformers convert fuel into a hydrogen-rich fuel stream through catalytic reactions in several stages. The high temperatures associated with fuel processing present an engineering challenge to warm up the reformer quickly and efficiently in a vehicle environment. Without a special warmup phase or vehicle hybridization, the reformer and fuel cell system must provide all power to move the vehicle, including ¼ power in 30 s, and ½ power in 3 min to satisfy the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle demands.
Technical Paper

Central Carolina Vehicle Particulate Emissions Study

In-use, light-duty vehicles were recruited in Cary, North Carolina for emissions testing on a transportable dynamometer in 1999. Two hundred forty-eight vehicles were tested in as received condition using the IM240 driving cycle. The study was conducted in two phases, a summer and winter phase, with half of the vehicles recruited during each phase. Regulated emissions, PM10, carbonaceous PM, aldehydes and ketones were measured for every test. PM2.5, individual volatile hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterane and hopane emissions were measured from a subset of the vehicles. Average light-duty gasoline PM10 emission rates increased from 6.5 mg/mi for 1993-97 vehicles to 53.8 mg/mi for the pre-1985 vehicles. The recruited fleet average, hot-stabilized IM240 PM10 emission rate for gasoline vehicles was 19.0 mg/mi.
Technical Paper

Development of a Diesel Passenger Car Meeting Tier 2 Emissions Levels

Increasing fuel costs, the need to reduce dependence on foreign oil as well as the high efficiency and the desire for superior durability have caused the diesel engine to again become a prime target for light-duty vehicle applications in the United States. In support of this the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in a test project under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity to develop a passenger car with the capability to demonstrate compliance with Tier 2 Bin 5 emission targets with a fresh emission control catalyst system. In order to achieve this goal, a prototype engine was installed in a passenger car and optimized to provide the lowest practical level of engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.