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Technical Paper

In-Flight Icing of UAVs - The Influence of Reynolds Number on the Ice Accretion Process

2011-10-18
2011-01-2572
The intensive deployment of UAVs for surveillance and reconnaissance missions during the last couple of decades has revealed their vulnerability to icing conditions. At present, a common icing avoidance strategy is simply not to fly when icing is forecast. Consequently, UAV missions in cold seasons and cold regions can be delayed for days when icing conditions persist. While this approach limits substantially the failure of UAV missions as a result of icing, there is obviously a need to develop all-weather capabilities. A key step in accomplishing this objective is to understand better the influence of a smaller geometry and a lower speed on the ice accretion process, relative to the extensively researched area of in-flight icing for traditional aircraft configurations characterized by high Reynolds number. Our analysis of the influence of Reynolds number on the ice accretion process is performed for the NACA0012 airfoil.
Journal Article

Review of Canadian Flight Deck and Cabin Smoke and Fire Incidents: 2001-2010

2013-09-17
2013-01-2307
This paper presents a review of the flight deck and cabin fire and smoke incidents reported to the Canadian airworthiness authorities over a ten year span. The fire and smoke related diversions are categorized to identify areas where efforts could be increased to improve safety. The costs of diversions are estimated to identify areas where operators could reduce costs by seeking technologies to reduce the number of diversions without any impact on safety. Only twenty-eight investigation reports into fire and smoke incidents onboard aircraft have been published over the past three decades. These reports are not sufficient to identify areas where operators can reduce their operating costs. The Canadian airworthiness authorities received over 1,000 smoke and fire incidents from the years 2001 to 2010, of which, over 680 reported fire and smoke in the flight deck and cabin compartments for various makes and models of aircraft.
Technical Paper

Development and Commissioning of a Linear Compressor Cascade Rig for Ice Crystal Research

2011-06-13
2011-38-0079
This paper describes the commissioning of a linear compressor cascade rig for ice crystal research. The rig is located in an altitude chamber so the test section stagnation pressure, temperature and Mach number can be varied independently. The facility is open-circuit which eliminates the possibility of recirculating ice crystals reentering the test section and modifying the median mass diameter and total water content in time. As this is an innovative facility, the operating procedures and instrumentation used are discussed. Sample flow quality data are presented showing the distribution of velocity, temperature, turbulence intensity and ice water concentration in the test section. The control and repeatability of experimental parameters is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Performance Degradation - the Effects of Inflight Icing upon Lift, Drag and Propulsive Efficiency

2011-06-13
2011-38-0073
Data is presented from a number of flight research aircraft, which have been involved in the research of the effects of inflight icing, in a variety of atmospheric supercooled droplet and mixed-phase icing environmental conditions. The aircraft Types considered cover both Pneumatic and Thermal Ice Protection Systems (IPS). Icing includes supercooled droplet impact icing upon airframe and propeller blades and cold-soaked frost icing. The drag effects of inflight icing, from mixed-phase small and large droplets encountered during the course of SALPEX cloud physics research operations, upon a Fokker F-27 turboprop transport aircraft, have been analyzed. Furthermore, during the course of AIRS 1.5 and AIRS II inflight icing flight research operations, the NRC Convair conducted aerodynamic characterization maneuvers, following and during icing accretion in a wide range of environmental conditions of altitude, air temperature, LWC and droplet spectra.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Forming of Thermoplastics through Forming Power

2013-04-08
2013-01-0602
Controlling the forming of large thermoplastic parts from a simulation requires very precise predictions of the pressure and volume profile evolution. Present pressure profile based simulations adequately predict the thickness distribution of a part, but the forming pressure and volume profile development lack the precision required for process control. However new simulations based on the amount of power required to form the material can accurately predict these pressure and volume profiles. In addition online monitoring of the forming power on existing machines can be easily implemented by installing a flow rate and pressure meter at the gas entrance, and if necessary, exits of the part. An important additional benefit is that a machine thus equipped can function as an online rheometer that can characterize the viscosity of the material at the operating point by tuning the simulation to the online measurements.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Dynamic Stability Characteristics of the Bell Model M427 Helicopter Using Parameter Estimation Technology

2002-11-05
2002-01-2916
A joint program between Bell Helicopter Textron Canada and the Flight Research Laboratory of Canada's National Research Council was initiated to address the aerodynamic modelling challenges of the Bell M427 helicopter. The primary objective was to use the NRC parameter estimation technique, based on modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE), on a limited set of flight test data to efficiently develop an accurate forward-flight mathematical model of the Bell M427. The effect of main rotor design changes on the aircraft stability characteristics was also investigated, using parameter estimation. This program has demonstrated the feasibility of creating a forward-flight rotorcraft aerodynamic mathematical model based on time-domain parameter estimation, and the ability of a 6 degree-of-freedom MMLE model to accurately document the impact of minor rotor modifications on aircraft stability.
Technical Paper

Repair Issues for Corroded Fuselage Lap Joints

1999-10-19
1999-01-5529
The National Research Council Canada has collected a large number of corroded and non-corroded fuselage lap joints from retired and operational aircraft. A number of these corroded joints have been disassembled in order to quantify the level of corrosion. During the disassembly, it was often observed that common repair techniques resulted in damage to the structure. The damage observed was significant enough to raise concerns regarding the effect of the repair techniques on structural integrity. This paper describes the different types of damage found.
Technical Paper

NRC Particle Detection Probe: Results and Analysis from Ground and Flight Tests

2019-06-10
2019-01-1933
High altitude ice crystals are causing in-service events in excess of one per month for commercial aircraft. The effects include air data probes malfunctioning (pitot pressure and total air temperature in particular), and uncommanded engine power loss or flameout events. The National Research Council Canada (NRC) has developed a particle detection probe (PDP) that mounts on the fuselage of aircraft to sense and quantify the ice crystals in the environment. The probe is low-power and non-intrusive. This paper presents the results of ground and flight testing of this probe. Results are presented for ground testing in a sea level ice crystal wind tunnel and an altitude icing tunnel capable of generating both ice crystal and super-cooled liquid. The PDP was operated on several flight campaigns and the results of two will be presented.
Technical Paper

Validation and Instrumentation of a Small Modular Multi-Stage Axial Compressor for Ice Crystal Icing Research

2019-06-10
2019-01-1940
The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has undergone the development of a Small Axial Compressor Rig for modelling altitude ice accretion in aircraft engines. The rig consists of two axial compressor stages measuring approximately 150mm in diameter, an extension duct to allow residence time for partial melting of ice crystals and a test piece. The axial compressor stages are intended to provide realistic engine conditioning such as fracture, pressure rise, temperature rise and centrifuging of glaciated ice crystals entering the rig. The rig was designed for use in altitude icing wind tunnels such as the NRC’s altitude icing wind tunnel (AIWT), research altitude test facility (RATFac.), and those of other organization such as NASA Glenn and Technical University of Braunshweig. Previous development work [1] provided partial validation of the aerodynamic performance of just the first compressor stage at 90% power.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Visual Failure versus Aerodynamic Limit for a Snow Contaminated Anti-Iced Wing Section during Simulated Takeoff

2019-06-10
2019-01-1972
Under contract to Airlines for America (A4A), APS Aviation Inc. (APS), in collaboration with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), completed an aircraft ground icing exploratory research project at the NRC 3 m × 6 m Wind Tunnel in Ottawa in January 2019. The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using aerodynamic data to evaluate the performance of contaminated anti-icing fluid, rather than the traditional visual fluid failure indicators that are used to develop Holdover Times (HOTs). The aerodynamic performance of a supercritical airfoil model with anti-icing fluids and snow contamination was evaluated against the clean, dry performance of the airfoil in order to calculate the associated aerodynamic penalty. The visual failure of the fluid was also evaluated for each run, and the visual and aerodynamic results were compared against each other for each contamination exposure time.
Technical Paper

Advanced Real-time Aerodynamic Model Identification Technique

2001-09-11
2001-01-2965
The Flight Research Laboratory (FRL), National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is currently developing an in-flight aircraft aerodynamic model identification technique that determines the small perturbation model at a given test condition. Initial demonstrations have been carried out using the NRC Falcon 20 research aircraft. An efficient system architecture, in terms of both software algorithms and hardware processing, has been designed to meet the stringent near real-time requirements of an in-flight system. As well, novel hardware and software techniques are being applied to the calibration and measurement of the fundamental in-flight parameters, such as air data. The small perturbation models are then combined to develop a global model of the aircraft that is validated by comparing the model response to flight data. The maneuvers were performed according to the FAA Acceptance Test Guide (ATG).
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