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Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper

Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents

This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for HDV Fuel Economy Performance with PC Simulation and Mapping Procedure

As countermeasures against global warming caused by carbon dioxide, improvement of automotive fuel economy to lower CO2 emission becomes important. In order to promote less CO2 vehicles, appropriate methods to evaluate vehicle fuel economy performance are needed. However, the existing fuel economy test is limited to passenger cars and light duty trucks. The test is executed on a chassis dynamometer. However, if this test method is applied to heavy-duty vehicles (HDV), a large sized chassis dynamometer is needed. Furthermore, heavy duty vehicles have wide variations in a combination of an equipped engine, body shape, a transmission gear, a permissible limit of pay load, and so on. This leads to the increase in the number of chassis dynamometer tests. Therefore, it is difficult to use chassis dynamometer test to evaluate HDV fuel economy performance.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Diesel Engine for Light Duty Truck Using a Jerk Type In-Line DME Injection System

Over the last few years much interest has been shown in Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new fuel for diesel cycle engines. DME combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot-free combustion, making it eminently suitable for compression engines. According, however, to past engine test results, the engine output of a DME engine lacking compatibility as a DME injection system, is low in comparison with a diesel engine. Required is development of a DME injection system conforming to DME properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of DME application for a conventional jerk-type in-line injection system that has the actual result of use of a comparatively low lubricity fuel such as methanol.
Journal Article

Study of DME Diesel Engine for Low NOx and CO2 Emission and Development of DME Trucks for Commercial Use

Study of DME diesel engines was conducted to improve fuel consumption and emissions of its. Additionally, DME trucks were built for the promotion and the road tests of these trucks were executed on EFV21 project. In this paper, results of diesel engine tests and DME truck driving tests are presented. As for DME diesel engines, the performance of a DME turbocharged diesel engine with LPL-EGR was evaluated and the influence of the compression ratio was also explored. As for DME trucks, a 100,000km road test was conducted on a DME light duty truck. After the road test, the engine was disassembled for investigation. Furthermore, two DME medium duty trucks have been developed and are now the undergoing practical road testing in each area of two transportation companies in Japan.