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Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Properties of Biodiesel on Its Combustion and Emission Characteristics

2011-08-30
2011-01-1939
The use of biofuel is essential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. This paper highlights the use of biodiesel as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission from the diesel engine of heavy-duty vehicles. Biodiesel is fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) obtained through ester exchange reaction by adding methanol to oil, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, etc. The CO₂ emission from combustion of biodiesel is defined to be equivalent to the CO₂ volume absorbed by its raw materials or plants in their course of growth. On the other hand, however, biodiesel is known to increase the NOx emission when compared with operating with conventional diesel fuel, then suppressing this increase is regarded as a critical issue. This study is intended to identify the fuel properties of biodiesel free from increase in the NOx emission.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hydrogen Jet Configuration by Single Hole Nozzle and High Speed Laser Shadowgraphy in High Pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-2002
A new ignition-combustion concept named PCC (Plume Ignition Combustion Concept), which ignite rich mixture plume in the middle of injection period or right after injection of hydrogen is completed, is proposed by the authors in order to reduce NOx emissions in high engine load conditions with minimizing trade-offs on thermal efficiency. In this study fundamental requirements of hydrogen jet to optimize PCC are investigated by using single and multi-hole nozzle with a combination of high speed laser shadowgraphy to visualize propagating flame. As a result, it was infered that igniting the mixture plume in the middle of injection period with minimizing jet penetration to chamber wall is effective reducing NOx formation even further.
Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

2009-11-02
2009-01-2740
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics and Performance Increase of an LPG-SI Engine with Liquid Fuel Injection System

2009-11-02
2009-01-2785
Compared with petroleum fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) demonstrates advantages in low CO2 emission because of propane and butane, which are the main components of LPG, making H/C ratio higher. In addition, LPG is suitable for high efficient operation of a spark ignition (SI) engine due to its higher research octane number (RON). Because of these advantages, that is, diversity of energy source and reduction of CO2, in the past several years, LPG vehicles have widely used as the alternate to gasoline vehicles all over the world. Consequently, it is absolutely essential for the performance increase of LPG vehicles to comprehend the combustion characteristics of LPG and to obtain the guideline for engine design and calibration. In this study, an LPG-SI engine was built up by converting fuel supply system of an in-line 4-cylinder gasoline engine, which has 1997 cm3 displacement with MPI system, to LPG liquid fuel injection system [1].
Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions Improvement by RME in a High Boost and EGR Single Cylinder Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1376
The biomass fuel is expected to solve the global warming due to a carbon neutral. A rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as biomass fuel was selected, and also a low sulfur diesel fuel is tested as reference fuel in this study. The experiments were carried out to improve diesel emissions and engine performance using high boost and high rate EGR system and a common rail injection system in a single cylinder engine. The diesel emissions and engine performance have been measured under the experimental conditions such as charging boost pressure from atmospheric pressure to 401.3kPa maximum and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40% maximum. RME contain about 10 mass % oxygen in the fuel molecule. Furthermore, RME does not contain aromatic hydrocarbons in the fuel. Due to these chemical properties, RME can be used at 40% high EGR condition.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1438
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Pressure and Temperature Dependent Formation Process of up to Triple-Ring PAH from Benzene

2008-10-06
2008-01-2437
The formation pathway for poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied by not only fundamental chemists but also motor engineers due to the formation of nanoparticle precursors and soot in vehicle emissions. In this study, the formation process of up to triple-ring PAHs was investigated using a flow tube reactor. The gaseous products from the pyrolysis of benzene were analyzed by using GC-MS in the temperature range of 850 - 1277 K and pressure range of 50 - 760 mmHg. We found that PAH products formed at temperatures greater than 1050 K, and the formation process was pressure dependent.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on Emission Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2384
The use of biodiesel fuels as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO2 emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. Biodiesel is usually blended to conventional diesel fuel in various proportions. It is possible that this biodiesel blending causes the problems on emission characteristics of modern diesel engine, because it could be confirmed that the application of neat biodiesel to modern diesel engines whose control parameters were optimized for conventional diesel fuel deteriorated the emission performances. It is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel blending on exhaust emissions of modern diesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected as a biodiesel used in this study.
Technical Paper

Degradation of DeNOx Performance of a Urea-SCR System in In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles Complying with the New Long-Term Regulation in Japan and Estimation of its Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0958
Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
Technical Paper

A Study on Hybrid Control Method for Improvement of Fuel Economy and Exhaust-Gas Emission of Hybrid Trucks

2015-09-01
2015-01-1780
Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are studied and expected to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The number of small delivery hybrid trucks has increased in the commercial vehicle class. The engine load of a commercial hybrid truck is reduced by using an electric motor. Fuel economy of the hybrid truck is improved with the assist. On the other hand, exhaust-gas temperature is decreased, and it has a negative effect on the purification performance of aftertreatment system. In this report, the fuel performance and emission gas characteristics of marketed small hybrid trucks were surveyed using the chassis dynamometer test system.
Technical Paper

Development of DME Engine for Heavy-duty Truck

2006-04-03
2006-01-0052
In recent years, attention has focused on smokeless, sulfur-free dimethyl ethyl (DME) as a clean fuel for heavy-duty diesel vehicles [1]. In this development, the DME engine applied for 20-ton GVW truck was developed under the auspices of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Japan, the first known instance worldwide. With careful design of the fuel system considering DME's unique fuel characteristics and suitable combustion improvement, higher torque was obtained with DME, compared to diesel fueling. and also use of the proper EGR and catalyst, exhaust emissions levels were generally less than one-fourth of new long-term regulation value promulgated in 2005 Japan.
Technical Paper

Detection of Deteriorated Catalyst on Vehicle under Actual Operation Conditions: Application of FFT Analysis to Signal Wave by the Dual Oxygen Sensors Method

2007-07-23
2007-01-1927
The object of this study is to investigate an on-board diagnostic method to detect the deterioration of a three-way catalyst (TWC) under actual vehicle operating conditions, including the acceleration state. The signal data of two oxygen sensors were processed by the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) method. As a result, we found that the power spectrum of the signal waves can be the index of catalyst deterioration degree. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the difference between the power spectrum of the upstream oxygen sensor signal and one of the downstream oxygen sensor signal named ΔPower is effective index for detection of deteriorated catalyst under acceleration conditions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine System for Application of Biodiesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2028
Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because biodiesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, biodiesels yield an increase in NOx emission from conventional diesel engine, compared with diesel fuel case. Therefore, some strategies are needed for meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. In this study, rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was applied to diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst. NOx reduction rate of NSR catalyst was drastically decreased by using RME, even if injection quantity of RME for rich spike was enhanced. However, an increase in EGR rate could reduce NOx emission without the deterioration in smoke and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measuring System for Engine Exhaust Solid Particle Number Emission - Performance and Vehicle Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0865
The prototype solid particle counting system (SPCS) has been used to study solid particle emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles. As recommended by the PMP draft proposal, exhaust is diluted by a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS). The SPCS takes the sample from the CVS tunnel. Transient test cycles such as EPA FTP 75, EPA HWFET (EPA Highway Fuel Economy Cycle), and NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) were tested. The repeatability of the instrument was evaluated on the diesel vehicle for three continuous days. The instrument exhibits good repeatability. The differences for the EPA ftp 75, the EPA HWFET, and the NEDC in three continuous tests are ± 3.5%. The instrument is very sensitive as well and detects the driving differences. A large number of solid particles are found during the hard acceleration from both the gasoline and the diesel vehicles. Solid particle emissions decrease quickly at deceleration and when vehicles approach constant speed.
Technical Paper

Application of Biodiesel Fuel to Modern Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0233
The 1997 Kyoto protocol came into effect in February, 2005 to reduce greenhouse gases within the period 2008-2012 by at least 5 % with respect to 1990 levels. Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because BDF is carbon neutral in principle. The purpose of this project is to produce a light-duty biodiesel truck which can be suitable for emission regulation in next generation. The effect of BDF on the performance and emissions of modern diesel engine which was equipped with the aftertreatment for PM and NOx emissions was investigated without modifications of engine components and parameters, as a first step for research and development of biodiesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected in behalf of BDF, and combustion characteristics, engine performance and exhaust emissions were made a comparison between RME and petroleum diesel fuel by steady operation and Japan transient mode (JE05) tests.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under Catalysts Activated and De-Activated Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0639
Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system has high potential of reducing NOx. But such as system durability and safety under deteriorated catalysts conditions have not been well enough clarified because it is new technology for vehicles. In this paper, current NOx emission level of an engine equipped with urea SCR system is discussed and then exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed when the SCR catalyst and/or oxidation catalyst lose their functions. When both SCR and oxidation catalyst were de-activated, not only NOx but also PM increased remarkably, which were much more than the engine-out emissions. Oxidation catalyst downstream of SCR catalyst was effective to suppress such deteriorations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3397
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel Engines Fuelled with Biodiesel

2007-09-16
2007-24-0128
Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because bio-diesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, when biodiesel was applied to conventional diesel engines without modification for biodiesel, NOx emission was increased by the change in fuel characteristics. It is necessary to introduce some strategies into diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel for lower NOx emission than conventional diesel fuel case. The purpose of this study is to reveal that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the solutions for the reduction of NOx emission and meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. Neat Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as a biodiesel (B100) was applied to diesel engines equipped with high pressure loop (HPL) EGR system and low pressure loop (LPL) EGR system. Cooled HPL EGR was increased during steady-state operations and JE05 transient mode tests.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for HDV Fuel Economy Performance with PC Simulation and Mapping Procedure

2003-05-19
2003-01-2010
As countermeasures against global warming caused by carbon dioxide, improvement of automotive fuel economy to lower CO2 emission becomes important. In order to promote less CO2 vehicles, appropriate methods to evaluate vehicle fuel economy performance are needed. However, the existing fuel economy test is limited to passenger cars and light duty trucks. The test is executed on a chassis dynamometer. However, if this test method is applied to heavy-duty vehicles (HDV), a large sized chassis dynamometer is needed. Furthermore, heavy duty vehicles have wide variations in a combination of an equipped engine, body shape, a transmission gear, a permissible limit of pay load, and so on. This leads to the increase in the number of chassis dynamometer tests. Therefore, it is difficult to use chassis dynamometer test to evaluate HDV fuel economy performance.
Technical Paper

Trapping Performance of Fine Particles from a Diesel Engine by Various DPFs with Different Surface Structures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0598
The regulation of particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines is coming to be very stringent at present. The usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now under consideration in many heavy-duty diesel vehicle manufacturers to reduce PM emission from a diesel engine. The possibility that very fine particles may pass through DPF is suggested. The understanding of fine particles emission behaviors and the countermeasure of reducing particle emissions from DPF will come to be important in near future. The behavior of particle size distribution after DPF has not been studied enough yet. In this study, fine particles generated by a diesel engine are introduced to honeycomb type and SiC (Silicon Carbite) fiber type DPFs and the collection performances of fine particles by various DPFs with different surface structures have been examined.
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