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Technical Paper

Influence of Initial Turbulence in RCM on Spontaneous Ignition of End Gas under SI Combustion

The influence of the eddy scale of initial turbulence in RCM on the pressure rise rate after spontaneous ignition of end gas was investigated. The combustion time of the end gas after spontaneous ignition was observed by using high-speed direct photography. As a result, the large scale eddy reduced the pressure rise rate after spontaneous ignition. The temperature inhomogeneity of end gas was higher with the large scale eddy. The combustion time of end gas after spontaneous ignition was prolonged by variation in local ignition delay due to inhomogeneity. The large scale eddy may prevented the knocking occurrence.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter Formation Dynamics as Investigated by Ultra-Accelerated Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Coupled with Canonical Monte Carlo Method

Suppression or reduction of soot emissions is an important goal in the development of automotive engines for environmental and human health purposes. A better understanding at the molecular level of the formation process of soot particles resulting from collision and aggregation of smaller particles made of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) is needed. In addition to experiments, computational methods are efficient and valuable tools for this purpose. As a first step in our detailed computational chemistry study, we applied Ultra-Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (UAQCMD) and Canonical Monte-Carlo (CMC) methods to investigate the nucleation process. The UA-QCMD can calculate chemical reaction dynamics 107 times faster than conventional first principle molecular dynamics methods, while CMC can calculate equilibrium properties at various temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

8 A Study of the Influence of Fuel Temperature on Emission Characteristics and Engine Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

In this study, the heated fuels were provided to the diesel engine in order to activate the fuel before the injection. Two test fuels: the normal diesel fuel and cetane, which have different boiling points were used. For both normal diesel fuel and cetane, crank angles at ignition and maximum pressure are delayed and the maximum combustion pressure is decreased as the fuel temperature rises. In cases of large and middle mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are decreased when the fuel temperature is higher than 570 [K]. However, in the case of small mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency is almost independent of fuel temperature. HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas emission show constant values regardless of fuel temperature. However, NOx concentration is gradually decreased as the fuel temperature rises.
Technical Paper

Influence of Autoignition and Pressure Wave Behavior on Knock Intensity Based on Multipoint Pressure Measurement and In-Cylinder Visualization of the End Gas

In this study, the effect of autoignition behavior in the unburned end-gas region on pressure wave formation and knock intensity was investigated. A single-cylinder gasoline engine capable of high-speed observation of the end gas was used in the experiments. Visualization in the combustion chamber and spectroscopic measurement of light absorption by the end gas were carried out to analyze autoignition behavior in the unburned end-gas portion and the reaction history before autoignition. The process of autoignition and pressure wave growth was investigated by analyzing multipoint pressure histories. As a result, it was found that knocking intensity increases through interaction between autoignition and pressure waves.
Journal Article

A Study of the Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Waves under HCCI Knocking by using an Optically Accessible Engine

This study investigated the origin of knocking combustion accompanied by pressure wave and strong pressure oscillations in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke single cylinder optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The test fuel used was n-heptane. The equivalence ratio and intake temperature were varied to induce a transition from moderate HCCI combustion to extremely rapid HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations. Local autoignition and pressure wave behavior under each set of operating conditions were investigated in detail on the basis of high-speed in-cylinder visualization and in-cylinder pressure analysis. As a result, under conditions where strong knocking occurs, a brilliant flame originates from the burned gas side in the process where the locally occurring autoignition gradually spreads to multiple locations.