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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Technical Paper

Impingement Behavior of Fuel Droplets on Oil Film

In a direct injection gasoline engine, the impingement of injected fuel on the oil film, i.e. cylinder liner gives rise to various problems such as abnormal combustion, oil dilution and particulate matter emission. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. However, there is little information on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the oil film, whereas many investigations on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the fuel film are reported. In this study, fundamental investigations were performed for the purpose of clarifying the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. A single fuel droplet mixed with fluorescence dye was dripped on the oil film. To separately measure the fuel and the oil after impingement, simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were performed.
Technical Paper

TEM Analysis of Soot Particles Sampled from Gasoline Direction Injection Engine Exhaust at Different Fuel Injection Timings

For better understanding of in-cylinder soot formation processes and governing factors of the number of emitted soot particles of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis of morphology and nanostructure of the soot particles sampled in the exhaust should provide useful information. However, the number concentration of the soot particles emitted from GDI engines is relatively low, which was impeding reliable morphological analysis of the soot particles based on a sufficient number of sampled particles. Therefore, in the present study, a water-cooled thermophoretic sampler for simple and direct sampling of exhaust soot particles was developed and employed, which enabled to obtain a sufficient number of particle samples from the exhaust with Particulate Number (PN) 105 #/cc level for quantitative morphology analysis.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Longer Stroke on Improving Fuel Economy of a Multiple-Link VCR Engine

Some automakers have been studying variable compression ratio (VCR) technology as one possible way of improving fuel economy. In previous studies, we have developed a VCR mechanism of a unique multiple-link configuration that achieves a piston stroke characterized by semi-sinusoidal oscillation and lower piston acceleration at top dead center than on conventional mechanisms. By controlling compression ratio with this multiple-link VCR mechanism so that it optimally matches any operating condition, the mechanism has demonstrated that both lower fuel consumption and higher output power are simultaneously possible. However, it has also been observed that fuel consumption does not reduce further once the compression ratio reached a certain level. This study focused on the fact that the piston-stroke characteristic obtained with the multiple-link mechanism is suitable to a longer stroke.