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Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Development of 0W-20 ILSAC GF-3 Gasoline Engine Oil

A new 0W-20 gasoline engine oil was developed to improve fuel economy over ILSAC GF-2 5W-20 gasoline engine oils and to meet ILSAC GF-3 requirements. The main improvements made were to viscosity and friction modifiers. Viscosity at 80°C was adjusted to obtain better fuel economy than with 5W-20 oil in the Japanese 10-15 mode test. Therefore, low-temperature viscosity decreased to 0W and high-temperature high-shear viscosity exceeds 2.6 mPa?s. Friction modifiers and other additives were investigated to find the lowest friction characteristics. The resulting formulation shows more than a 2.0% fuel economy gain in the Japanese 10-15 mode test and the new oil has been certified as meeting ILSAC GF-3 requirements.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Dilution in Direct-Injection and Multipoint Injection Gasoline Engines

Fuel dilution is one of the phenomena requiring attention in direct-injection engines. This study examined the factors contributing to increased fuel dilution in direct-injection and conventional multipoint injection gasoline engines, focusing in particular on fuel dilution in the oil pan. The results showed that fuel dilution is affected by fuel consumption, fuel properties and oil/cooling water temperatures in multipoint injection engines. In addition to these factors, fuel injection timing is another factor that increases fuel dilution in direct-injection engines.