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Technical Paper

Effects of Clean Fuels (Reformulated Gasolines, M85, and CNG) on Automotive Emissions

With the aim of improving the air quality in large cities, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has stipulated that non-methane organic gas (NMOG) composed of carbon numbers from C1 to C12 must be reduced for vehicle categories designated as Transitional Low Emission Vehicles (TLEVs), Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs), Ultra low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs), and Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). Although considerable research work has been done on this issue to date, the entire picture is still not clear. Studies done by the authors have been aimed at providing a better understanding of the potential for reducing automotive tailpipe emissions by using several clean fuel candidates. The major questions of concern are the extent to which emissions of certain species can actually be reduced and what fuel can provide the best performance under a reduced NMOG condition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Catalyst Systems on Characteristics of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Species

The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.
Technical Paper

Study on Parameters Affecting NMOG Measurements and a Method to Improve its Accuracy

Nissan has developed a non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission measuring method based on California Air Resources Board (CARB) procedures.1) In addition, a system to analyze the chemical species present in the exhaust gases at Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) levels has been created. It was found that when using an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) to achieve the low emissions for LEV and ULEV levels, the interference between exhaust HC species and the contamination of the analyzing system are a serious problem for the measurement of speciated emissions. The methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contained in reformulated gasoline can interfere with HC speciation in the Chromatogram, requiring that the automatically speciated results be checked by a trained operator. The low exhaust HC emissions of bags 2 and 3 in the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) are nearly equal to that of the background air utilized in the constant volume sampler (CVS) dilution.