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Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

An adsorber system for reducing cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions has been developed combining existing catalyst technologies with a zeolite-based HC adsorber. The series flow in-line concept offers a passive and simplified alternative to other technologies by incorporating one additional adsorber substrate into existing converters without any additional valving, purging lines, secondary air, or special substrates. Major technical issues to be resolved for practical use of this system are 1) the ability to adsorb a wide range of HC molecular sizes in the cold exhaust gas and 2) the temperature difference between HC desorption from the adsorber and activation of the catalyst to convert desorbed HCs. This paper describes the current development status of hydrocarbon adsorber aftertreatment technologies. We report results obtained with a variety of adsorber properties, washcoat structures of adsorber catalyst and start-up and underfloor catalyst system combinations.
Technical Paper

Development of a New HC-Adsorption Three-Way Catalyst System for Partial-ZEV Performance

This paper describes a newly developed HC-adsorption three-way catalyst and adsorption system that reduce cold-start HC emissions with high efficiency. This system is the first of its kind anywhere in the world to be implemented on production vehicles. An overview is given of the various improvements made to achieve higher cold-start HC conversion efficiency. Improvement of conversion performance was accomplished by (1) increasing the thermal stability of the HC adsorbent, (2) improving desorbed HC conversion efficiency and durability and (3) optimizing the geometric surface area (GSA) of the substrate. Concretely, the thermal stability of the adsorbent was improved by enhancing the high-temperature durability of zeolite. Improvement of desorbed HC conversion efficiency was accomplished by improving the OSC material so as to match the temperature rise characteristic and usage temperature of the catalyst.
Journal Article

Development of a Diesel Emission Catalyst System for Meeting US SULEV Standards

In recent years, catalyst systems such as a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst system and a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system have been developed to obtain cleaner diesel emissions. At Nissan, we developed an emission control system for meeting Tier 2 Bin 5 requirements in 2003. On the basis of that technology, a new HC-NOx trap catalyst system has now been developed that complies with the SULEV standards without increasing the catalyst volume and precious metal loading. Compliance with the SULEV standards requires a further reduction of HC (NMHC) emissions by 84% and NOx by 60% compared with the emission performance Tier 2 Bin 5 compliant catalyst system. Consequently high conversion performance for both HCs and NOx is needed. An investigation of HC emission behavior under the FTP75 mode showed that a reduction of cold-phase HCs was critical for meeting the standard. Large quantities of HCs above C4 are emitted in the cold state.