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Technical Paper

Measurement of Wake Flow Fields, Including Reverse Flow, of Scale Vehicle Models Using a New 13-Hole Pitot Tube

Among the various methods for measuring flow velocity vectors, multi-holed pitot tubes offer the advantages of facilitating pressure measurements, low cost and ease of use. On the negative side, the range of measurable flow angles is limited (e.g., to ± 40° with 5-hole tubes) and pitot tubes require time-consuming calibration before use. The authors have developed a new pitot tube with a spherical head and 13 holes arranged such that the pitot head shows a 5-hole pattern when viewed from different right angles. This hole arrangement is equivalent to having several multi-holed pitot tubes connected to one pitot head and expands the measurable range of flow angles substantially to ± 135°. In addition, a robot is used to achieve fully automatic calibration. These two improvements overcome the traditional drawbacks of multi-holed pitot tubes.
Technical Paper

Airflow Measurement Around Passenger Car Models Using a Two-Channel Laser Doppler Velocimeter

A two-channel LDV system is used to obtain accurate airflow measurements around scale models of passenger cars in wind tunnel tests at the Nissan Research Center. A 2-watt argon-ion laser is employed as the light source. The main optical unit and probe head are connected by optical fibers. The probe head consists of a compact LDV probe with a beam expander and focusing lens with a long focal length can be easily traversed. A new type of signal processor, performing a digital autocorrelation function, is employed to process the Doppler signals. Mean airflow velocities and turbulence intensities are calculated by a micro computer to evaluate the flow fields. The results of preliminary experiments conducted with this system indicate that the system is not only capable of measuring the mean velocity components, including reverse flow, it can also provide accurate estimation of turbulence components.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Pressure Analysis of the Wake Flow Behind a Passenger Car Model

This paper describes a system for measuring unsteady pressure at up to 256 spatial points and at frequencies up to 300 Hz. The system consists of commercially available equipment for measuring steady pressures. It is based on the use of electronically scanned pressure (ESP) sensors, 16 A/D converters, and a personal computer to control the whole system and acquire data. The signal outputs through the tubes connecting the pressure taps and the ESP sensors are compensated, as are the phase delays between the scanned signals and the gain variation. A 1/5 scale model of a sedan was used in this experiment. The passenger car model was placed in a wind tunnel equipped with a moving belt, which was operated at the same speed as the uniform flow in the wind tunnel. Pressure measurements were obtained at 252 points in a plane behind the model perpendicular to the uniform flow. Measurements were made with the belt turned on and off.