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Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Chamber Insulation on the Heat Rejection and Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Engines

Experiments were conducted with 4-cylinder and single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines to examine the effects of combustion chamber insulation on heat rejection and thermal efficiency. The combustion chamber was insulated by using a silicon nitride piston cavity that was shrink-fitted into a titanium alloy crown. The effect of insulation on heat rejection was examined on the basis of heat release calculations made from cylinder pressure time histories. High-speed photography was used to investigate combustion phenomena. The results showed that heat rejection was influenced by the combustion chamber geometry and swirl ratio and that it was reduced by insulating the combustion chamber. However, because combustion deteriorated, it was not possible to obtain an improvement in thermal efficiency equivalent to the reduction in heat rejection.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Clean Combustion Technology Combining a Low-Temperature and Premixed Combustion Concept for Meeting Future Emission Standards

Experimental investigations were conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine to improve exhaust emission, especially nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), without increasing fuel consumption. As a result of this work, a new combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, has been developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion, respectively. The characteristics of a new combustion concept were investigated using a single cylinder DI diesel engine and combustion photographs. The low compression ratio, EGR cooling and high injection pressure was applied with a multi-cylinder test engine to accomplish premixed combustion at high load region. Combustion chamber specifications have been optimized to avoid the increase of cold-start HC emissions due to a low compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines

A new auto-ignition combustion model for performing multi-zone engine cycle simulations has been developed to investigate the characteristics of compression ignition combustion in gasoline engines. In this combustion model, the auto-ignition timing is predicted with a modified shell model and combustion speed is calculated with a three-region (burned, ignited and unburned) model. Engine cycle simulations performed with this model were used to analyze the effect of engine operating parameters, i.e., temperature and air-fuel distributions in the cylinder, on combustion characteristics. It was found that the air-fuel distribution in the cylinder has a large impact on combustion characteristics and knocking was prevented by creating a fuel-rich zone at the center of the cylinder under high load conditions. The fuel-rich zone works as an ignition source to ignite the surrounding fuel-lean zone. In this way, two-step combustion is accomplished through two separate auto-ignitions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of the Exhaust Gas Flow and Heat Transfer in a Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter System During Warm-Up

A new multidimensional calculation method has been developed to simulate the warm-up characteristics of close-coupled catalytic converter systems. First, a one-dimensional gas exchange simulation and a three-dimensional exhaust gas flow calculation are combined to simulate the pulsation gas flow caused by the gas exchange process. The gas flow calculation and a heat transfer calculation are then combined to simulate heat transfer in the exhaust manifold and the catalyst honeycomb under pulsation flow. The predicted warm-up characteristics of the systems examined agreed well with the experimental data. In this simulation, CPU time was reduced greatly through the use of new calculation methods. Finally, the warm-up process of close-coupled catalysts is analyzed in detail with this simulation method. The design requirements for improving warm-up characteristics have been made clear.
Technical Paper

Combination of Combustion Concept and Fuel Property for Ultra-Clean DI Diesel

Experimental investigations were previously conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). As a result of that work, a combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, was developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion to achieve a cleaner diesel engine. In subsequent work, it was found that applying a low compression ratio was effective in expanding the MK combustion region on the high-load side. The MK concept was then combined with an exhaust after-treatment system and applied to a test vehicle. The results indicated the attainment of ULEV emission levels, albeit in laboratory evaluations. In the present work, the combination of the MK combustion concept and certain fuel properties has been experimentally investigated with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions further.
Journal Article

Development of a Diesel Emission Catalyst System for Meeting US SULEV Standards

In recent years, catalyst systems such as a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst system and a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system have been developed to obtain cleaner diesel emissions. At Nissan, we developed an emission control system for meeting Tier 2 Bin 5 requirements in 2003. On the basis of that technology, a new HC-NOx trap catalyst system has now been developed that complies with the SULEV standards without increasing the catalyst volume and precious metal loading. Compliance with the SULEV standards requires a further reduction of HC (NMHC) emissions by 84% and NOx by 60% compared with the emission performance Tier 2 Bin 5 compliant catalyst system. Consequently high conversion performance for both HCs and NOx is needed. An investigation of HC emission behavior under the FTP75 mode showed that a reduction of cold-phase HCs was critical for meeting the standard. Large quantities of HCs above C4 are emitted in the cold state.