Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

2011-11-18
Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Prediction of cooling flow rate through the front grille using flow analysis with a multi-level mesh system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0306
A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

2001-03-05
2001-01-0827
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Research on Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Low-Friction Valve Lifters

2003-03-03
2003-01-1101
One important development area for obtaining better fuel economy is to reduce mechanical friction losses in engine components. The valvetrain is a significant source of mechanical friction loss in an automobile engine, especially at low speeds where fuel economy is most important. This paper describes the potential use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings at the cam/follower interface in a bucket-type valvetrain. Using a pin-on-disk tester, a motored valvetrain friction apparatus and a bench test rig, the frictional performance of DLC coatings was tested. Experimental data indicate that under a lubricated condition, DLC coatings produced by a plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition) technique did not show a sufficient effect on reducing friction (only a 20-25% reduction) contrary to our expectations. DLC coatings prepared by arc-ion plating and containing less hydrogen showed superior frictional performance compared with CVD-DLC coatings under a lubricated condition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gas Flow and Mixture Properties on Engine-Out HC Emissions

1996-10-01
961952
The geometry and area of the notch in the swirl control valve installed in the intake port were varied to analyze the effects on HC emissions. A swirl control valve functions to promote the formation of a homogeneous mixture, enabling the amount of liquid fuel supplied to the cylinder to be reduced. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an added effect through the combined use of a swirl control valve and an auxiliary-air type of injector for assisting fuel atomization. Tumble (vertical swirl) flow fields are effective in shortening the combustion period. This results in a higher exhaust gas temperature at an equivalent level of combustion stability. It was thought that swirl flow fields produce residual gas flow in the cylinder after the completion of the main combustion period. It is surmised that the residual gas flow functions to diffuse and promote after-burning of the unburned HC layer.
Technical Paper

Effects of Swirl/Tumble Motion on In-Cylinder Mixture Formation in a Lean-Burn Engine

1996-10-01
961994
Flow measurement by laser Doppler velocimetry and visualization of in-cylinder fuel vapor motion by laser induced fluorescence were performed for various types of intake systems that generated several different combinations of swirl and tumble ratios. The measured results indicate that certain swirl and tumble ratios are needed to achieve charge stratification in the cylinder. Performance tests were also carried out to determine the combustion characteristics of each intake system. Then, the features of combustion when the charge stratification was realized was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 4WD System: All-Mode 4WD

1997-02-24
970684
This paper presents a new electronic torque split four-wheel-drive system called All-Mode 4WD, which has been adopted in the latest generation of sport-utility vehicles (SUVs). As a torque split system designed specifically for SUV use, it provides stable driving performance matching the driver's intentions under all sorts of operating conditions, from a completely natural on-road driving feel to powerful traction for off-road travel.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

1997-02-24
971022
New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Nissan's New Multivalve DI Diesel Engine Series

1998-02-23
981039
This paper presents Nissan's new four-valve-per-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine series consisting of a 2-liter class and 3-liter class. These engine series provide substantially improved power output along with lower noise and vibration levels, which have been traditional drawbacks of DI diesel engines. Nissan developed this engine series in response to the heightened need in recent years for passenger-car DI diesel engines with superior thermal efficiency, a characteristic advantageous for reducing CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

A Loss Analysis Design Approach to Improving Torque Converter Performance

1998-02-23
981100
This paper describes the relationship between the design parameters used to define the geometry of an automotive torque converter and the resultant efficiency in relation to the internal flow characteristics. Taking the turbine bias angle and the contraction ratio of the pump flow passage as specific examples, the effects of each design parameter on the internal flow characteristics and the occurrence of loss were analyzed. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis code was used in the numerical computation procedure and a method developed independently by the authors was used in the loss analysis. The flow near the wall was visualized experimentally using a technique resembling the so-called oil film method. The visualized results showed good qualitative agreement with the numerical analysis results.
Technical Paper

Performance of a CVT Fluid for High Torque Transmitting Belt-CVTs

1998-10-19
982675
A new belt-drive continuously variable Transmission (B-CVT) was introduced into the Japanese market in September 1997 by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. It transmits a maximum torque of 196 Nm and represents a major breakthrough of the torque limit transmitted by B-CVTs, thus opening a new epoch for the automatic transmission. The major features of the CVT are transmission of high torque between a steel belt and pulleys, electronic control of high hydraulic-pressure to pulleys and a torque converter with an electronically controlled lockup clutch engaging at low vehicle speeds. A CVT fluid formulated for this CVT was designed to optimize these features and this paper describes the performance of the CVT fluid in lab-scale tests and an endurance test of the CVT unit. In order to realize high torque transmission between a steel belt and pulleys, high friction between metal/metal contacts is required with normal wear.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Crank Pin Journal Temperature Based on the Oil Flow Rate

1998-05-04
981403
Improving the durability and reliability of crankshaft bearings has become an important issue for automotive engines recently because of conflicting demands for lower fuel consumption and higher power output. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing which is subjected to harsher operating conditions on account of these requirements. It is known that the crank pin journal temperature is an indicator of big-end bearing seizure. Having a simple method for predicting the crank pin journal temperature with the required accuracy at the design stage is indispensable to efficient engine development. In this study, analyses were first conducted to determine the oil flow rate at the big-end bearing which is a major determinant of the crank pin journal temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Pressure Fueling System for a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981458
A direct-injection gasoline engine that uses a stratified charge combustion process was developed by Nissan and released in the Japanese market toward the end of 1997. This new engine is based on Nissan's VQ engine, which enjoys a good reputation for its quick throttle response and low fuel consumption, and has been developed to accomplish the objectives of reducing fuel consumption by stratified charge combustion and securing high power output. The fuel injectors are connected by an arrangement of lightweight, small-diameter fuel lines that distribute fuel to each injector under high pressure. This system was adopted in order to reconcile the use of an aerodynamic straight intake port with the desired fuel injection position. The use of a casting net injector, which uniformly distributes the fuel spray above the piston, makes it possible to accomplish stratified charge combustion with a shallow-bowl piston.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Fuel Mixing Process in a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981440
The spray formation and mixing processes in a direct-injection gasoline engine are examined by using a sophisticated air flow calculation model and an original spray model. The spray model for a spiral injector can evaluate the droplet size and spatial distribution under a wide range of parameters such as the initial cone angle, back pressure and injection pressure. This model also includes the droplet breakup process due to wall impingement. The arbitrary constants used in the spray model are derived theoretically without using any experimental data. Fuel vapor distributions just before ignition and combustion processes are analyzed for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Performance in a New Direct-Injection SI V-6 Engine

1998-05-04
981435
One advantage of a direct-injection S.I. engine is lower fuel consumption due to the use of lean stratified charge combustion. Another advantage is greater power output resulting from evaporation of the fuel in the cylinder. A critical factor in making the most of these advantages is to achieve optimum mixture formation for both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion. To achieve the optimum mixture, the new direct-injection S.I. V-6 engine adopts a piston with a shallow bowl, a valve that changes in-cylinder air motion between swirl and tumble by opening and closing one side of separated air intake port, an air intake port that has optimized inward and port angle to induces swirl in the piston bowl, and a CASTING NET injector that injects the hollow cone spray in a deflected pattern toward the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Maximum Load Applied to Automotive Carburized Gears Using an Acoustic Emission Technique

1995-02-01
950668
A study was made of the possibility of using an acoustic emission (AE) technique to estimate the maximum load applied to automotive carburized gears under actual operating conditions. Three-point bending tests done on carburized steel specimens showed that, provided a small crack was induced in the material, AE was not generated until the material was subjected to a higher bending load than the maximum load previously applied. Using this effect, the maximum load applied to gears, in which a crack had been induced during endurance testing, was estimated. Although the estimated maximum load was about 14% higher than the actual load, the AE technique appears to be a promising method for use in the design and durability assurance of carburized parts of automotive powertrains.
Technical Paper

Turbulence and Cycle-by-Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion

1995-02-01
950813
Combinations of swirl flow and tumble flow generated by 13 types of swirl control valve were tested by using both impulse steady flow rig and LDV. Comparison between the steady flow characteristics and the result of LDV measurement under motoring condition shows that tumble flow generates turbulence in combustion chamber more effectively than swirl flow does, and that swirling motion reduces the cycle by cycle variation of mean velocity in combustion chamber which tends to be generated by tumbling motion. Performance tests are also carried out under the condition of homogeneous charge. Tumble flow promotes the combustion speed more strongly than expected from its turbulence intensity measured by LDV. It is also shown that lean limit air fuel ratio does not have a strong relation with cycle variation of mean velocity but with turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940991
This paper presents a new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 engine that has been developed for use in the next Nissan Maxima. The distinctive features of this new engine, VQ30DE, is its compact, lightweight design and excellent fuel economy. The basic construction of the engine is characterized by its 60-degree V6 configuration, chain-driven DOHC and high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block. A two-way cooling system was adopted with the aim of shortening the warm-up time of the cylinder liners. The new engine has been designed to comply with the tougher emission standards, the OBD-II requirements and California's new evaporative emission standard.
X