Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Development of a Lubricant for Retrofitting Automotive Air Conditioners for Use with HFC-134a

1994-03-01
940594
This paper presents a new refrigeration lubricant for use with the HFC-134a retrofit refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems originally designed to use the CFC-12 refrigerant, one of the regulated CFCs scheduled to be phased out. This new retrofit lubricant provides high lubricity and excellent performance characteristics as a result of adopting a newly developed PAG base oil with a block polymer structure and a new antiwear additive formulation. In retrofit systems, it assures sufficient durability for wobble-plate-type variable displacement compressors, which experience severe lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of the New Generation Ergonomic Seat Based on Occupant Posture Analysis

1995-02-01
950140
In this study, the functions required of automotive seats were analyzed from the standpoint of occupant posture. The results have been incorporated in the development of the New Generation Ergonomic Seat, which better fits the contours of the human body and prevents a stooped posture that places a greater load on the lumbar region, thereby reducing fatigue during long hours of driving. The new seat adopts the concept of “combined pelvic and lumbar support,” based on an analysis of the muscular and skeletal structure of the human body, sitting posture and body pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

1998-02-23
980328
The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

1998-10-19
98C035
Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Development of a Practical DSP Car Audio System

1992-02-01
920081
Digital signal processors (DSPs) are being used widely for sound field reproduction. However, it is difficult to apply a DSP to a car audio system because of the complicated acoustic characteristics of the passenger compartment. The authors have developed a new car audio system which employs special DSP software and a new speaker layout to provide excellent presence. The DSP has five output channels to generate stereophonic reflection from the front and rear speakers. The DSP software is programmed for each individual car model. A center speaker and A-pillar tweeters are used to produce a natural sound field in front through effective utilization of reflection from the windshield. This system is featured in 1992 Nissan models.
Technical Paper

Factors Limiting the Improvement in Thermal Efficiency of S. I. Engine at Higher Compression Ratio

1987-02-01
870548
An analysis of the factors that limit the improvement in thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios was performed with both thermodynamic calculation and experiment. The results showed that the major factors were cooling loss and unburned fuel. Both of these factors increase with smaller swept volume, larger S/V ratio combustion chamber, and lower engine speed and load. These effects explain the observation that thermal efficiency peaks at relatively low compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Development of Practical Heads-Up Display for Production Vehicle Application

1989-02-01
890559
THIS PAPER presents an advanced heads-up display which has been newly developed for use in 88 Nissan Silvia model. The HUD consists of a projector with a newly developed high brightness VFD and light-selective film used as a combiner which is coated on the windshield. This combination provides good display legibility even under bright sunlight. The display shows the vehicle speed in a three-digit reading at distance of more than one meter from the driver's eyes. The windshield-coated combiner conforms to U.S. safety standards concerning light transmittance, abrasion and other performance requirements. Experimental data are also presented which substantiate the HUD's high legibility and confirm its effect in enhancing the driver's attention toward the road ahead
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Predicting Comfortable Airflow in the Passenger Compartment

1992-09-01
922131
Indexes of thermal comfort, such as PMV (Predicted Mean Vote: ISO-7730), which have traditionally been applied to houses or buildings, are difficult to be applied to the automotive passenger compartment because of the large thermal differences that exist around vehicle occupants. In this work, the effects of temperature, airflow and solar radiation on passenger comfort in an air-conditioned vehicle interior were analyzed. Based on the results obtained, a method was devised for predicting the feeling of comfort passengers get from the thermal atmosphere in the vehicle interior. This paper explains the necessity of providing a diffused airflow in an air-conditioned passenger compartment, based on the effects of airflow on the feeling of comfort. Further, a new airflow control procedure is proposed which combines both diffused and concentrated airflow patterns to create a new variable airflow system.
Technical Paper

Study of Comfortable Sitting Posture

1988-02-01
880054
By nature, the driver's seat should be designed for work, while the passenger's seat should be built for comfort. This means that the functions of the seats are inherently different. Although many studies have been done on the driver's seat, the design and use of the passenger's seat have received little attention. This study examined a comfortable sitting posture in the passenger's seat. The results obtained have led to the development of two new devices. One device makes it possible for the seat cushion to move upward and forward as the seat tilts backward. The other device allows the upper portion of the seat back to tilt forward from the top of the lower seat back. These devices thus function to provide a comfortable sitting posture. This paper describes the new devices and presents the results of an investigation into a comfortable sitting posture for the occupant of the front passenger's seat.
Technical Paper

Effects of Power Plant Vibration on Sound Quality in the Passenger Compartment During Acceleration

1987-04-28
870955
The relationship between the spectrum structures of passenger compartment noise and the results of subjective evaluations of sound quality-has been studied on a fron-wheel-drive car with a four cylinder engine. As a result of an analysis using a car interior noise simulator, which is a kind of digital sound shynthesizer, most of the sound quality indicies such as the crank rumble noise, the roughness or unstable characteristics, and the muddiness were found to be related to the structure of engine revolution harmonics and to the strength of fourmants. Further, the physical mechanisms which characterize these spectrum structures were identified through both engine running tests and shaker tests. As a results, the dominant factors governing sound quality problems were found to be the crankshaft bending or torsional vibration coupled with the total power plant vibration shystem.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920570
Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Modal Synthesis Method for Coupled Acoustic-Structural Systems

1992-09-01
922089
This paper describes an experimental modal synthesis method for determining the noise characteristics of coupled acoustic-structural systems. This method was developed to provide an essential tool for analyzing passenger compartment noise levels. With this method, it is possible to obtain the coupled acoustic-structural parameters directly from experimental measurements of noise and vibration. The resulting modal parameters provide the basis for predicting how structural modifications will affect interior noise characteristics. This paper presents the theory on which the method is based and gives examples of its application to passenger compartment noise analyses.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automotive Air Conditioning System Using the HFC-134a Refrigerant

1992-02-01
920216
Regulations on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are being adopted around the world to protect the ozone layer from these chemicals. It is Nissan's position that environmental protection is one of the most important issues facing automotive engineers today. Accordingly, with the aim of ensuring a healthier environment, we have been working for approximately three years on the development of an automotive air conditioning system using the HFC-134a refrigerant in place of CFC-12. Starting with the introduction of this air conditioning system in a new production model scheduled for release in March 1992, the system is expected to be used in all new models for North America by the end of 1993. This paper describes the HFC-134a automotive air conditioning system from the standpoint of the design changes required in comparison with a conventional CFC-12 system and technical measures needed for vehicle application.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Interior Airflow in a Full-Scale Passenger-Compartment Model Using a Laser-Light-Sheet Method

1992-02-01
920206
Flow velocity distributions in the passenger compartment were measured from visualized images of particle flow paths obtained with a full-scale model. The flow paths were visualized using an approach that combined a particle tracing method with a pulse-laser light technique. Air was used as the fluid medium with the full-scale passenger compartment model and water was used as the fluid medium with a one-fourth scale model. A comparison of the results obtained with the two models confirmed that there was good agreement between the flow velocity distributions. Using the full-scale model, measurements were also made of the flow velocity distributions when two dummies were placed in the front-seats.
Technical Paper

The Development of Engine Evaporative Cooling System

1987-02-01
870033
A fundamental heat transfer study has “been conducted on a new engine cooling system in which heat is removed from the engine through the boiling process in the water jacket and is radiated to the air through a condenser. By carrying out a basic experiment using a model boiler as a substitute for the cylinder head water jacket and a real engine experiment, the following cooling system characteristics were found: First, a good heat transfer coefficient can be obtained up to an order of 103 kw/m2 heat flow with only a small coolant flow. Second, it is possible to obtain a more uniform temperature distribution over the engine structure by making use of the cooling by boiling characteristics which remove more heat from hotter surfaces than from cooler ones. Third, the good response of this system's variable temperature control procedure greatly reduces knocking, which in turn increases power.
Technical Paper

An Application of Structural-Acoustic Analysis to Car Body Structure

1985-05-15
850961
In order to calculate efficiently the characteristics of car body vibration and the acoustic characteristic of the passenger compartment, a structural-acoustic analysis system, ‘CAD-B’, was developed. This system divides the body into three components - front body, main cabin and rear body. The characteristics of front and rear body vibration are expressed in modal parameters. The vibration characteristic throughout the car body is then calculated through the building block approach, while the main cabin remains in finite elements. A good agreement in eigen pairs was seen between this approach and the conventional finite element method. As for the passenger compartment, it is divided into finite elements and its eigen pairs are calculated. Then by linking body vibration with the acoustic characteristic of the passenger compartment, sound pressure in the passenger compartment is calculated.
Technical Paper

New Automotive Applications for Liquid Crystal Displays

1984-02-01
840144
LCD instrument panels incorporating the following new techniques have been developed and put into practical use. The back illumination using white-light cold cathode discharge tubes, coupled with added dye and twisted nematic LCD panels, represents a liquid crystal display with good visibility and high-quality appearance. In addition, a fast display response time of less than 0.1 seconds at −30°C, and a two-toned display on a single segment have been achieved by the adoption of a heating system and three polarizers.
Technical Paper

A Consideration of Vehicle's Door Shutting Performance

1981-02-01
810101
Many papers have mentioned, in passing, a phenomena that is known as “airtightness”, which is one factor that hinders automobile doors from closing. It also causes the eardrums of any passengers in the vehicle to be temporarily pressurized when the door is closed. However, few documents have considered this phenomena in detail. In this paper, we investigate the magnitude of “airtightness” as it affects ear pressure and examine its relationship to such factors as the volume of the passenger compartment, door's opening area and its inertial moment. Finally, we utilized estimation methods to predict its influence on the force required to close the door and the amount of the resultant air draft.
Technical Paper

Thermal Imaging Technology using a Thermoelectric Infrared Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-0912
This paper describes a low-cost 48 × 48 element thermal imaging camera intended for use in measuring the temperature in a car interior for advanced air conditioning systems. The compact camera measures 46 × 46 × 60 mm. It operates under a program stored in the central processing unit and can measure the interior temperature distribution with an accuracy of ±0.7°C in range from 0 to 40°C. The camera includes a thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) housed in a low-cost vacuum-sealed package. The FPA is fabricated with the conventional IC manufacturing process and micromachining technology. The chip is 6.5 × 6.5 mm in size and achieves high sensitivity of 4,300 V/W, which is higher than the performance reported for any other thermopile. This high performance has been achieved by optimizing the sensor's thermal isolation structure and a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that attains high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
X