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Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gas Flow and Mixture Properties on Engine-Out HC Emissions

The geometry and area of the notch in the swirl control valve installed in the intake port were varied to analyze the effects on HC emissions. A swirl control valve functions to promote the formation of a homogeneous mixture, enabling the amount of liquid fuel supplied to the cylinder to be reduced. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an added effect through the combined use of a swirl control valve and an auxiliary-air type of injector for assisting fuel atomization. Tumble (vertical swirl) flow fields are effective in shortening the combustion period. This results in a higher exhaust gas temperature at an equivalent level of combustion stability. It was thought that swirl flow fields produce residual gas flow in the cylinder after the completion of the main combustion period. It is surmised that the residual gas flow functions to diffuse and promote after-burning of the unburned HC layer.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Crank Pin Journal Temperature Based on the Oil Flow Rate

Improving the durability and reliability of crankshaft bearings has become an important issue for automotive engines recently because of conflicting demands for lower fuel consumption and higher power output. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing which is subjected to harsher operating conditions on account of these requirements. It is known that the crank pin journal temperature is an indicator of big-end bearing seizure. Having a simple method for predicting the crank pin journal temperature with the required accuracy at the design stage is indispensable to efficient engine development. In this study, analyses were first conducted to determine the oil flow rate at the big-end bearing which is a major determinant of the crank pin journal temperature.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Maximum Load Applied to Automotive Carburized Gears Using an Acoustic Emission Technique

A study was made of the possibility of using an acoustic emission (AE) technique to estimate the maximum load applied to automotive carburized gears under actual operating conditions. Three-point bending tests done on carburized steel specimens showed that, provided a small crack was induced in the material, AE was not generated until the material was subjected to a higher bending load than the maximum load previously applied. Using this effect, the maximum load applied to gears, in which a crack had been induced during endurance testing, was estimated. Although the estimated maximum load was about 14% higher than the actual load, the AE technique appears to be a promising method for use in the design and durability assurance of carburized parts of automotive powertrains.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance TiA1 Exhaust Valve

A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Technical Paper

A Study on Engine Bearing Performance Focusing on the Viscosity-Pressure Characteristic of the Lubricant and Housing Stiffness

It is important to understand the influence of housing stiffness on bearing performance, particularly for the connecting rod bearings of automotive engines. It is known that the engine lubricant shows a piezoviscous characteristic whereby its viscosity changes under the influence of pressure. Engine bearings under a heavy load are apt to be influenced in this way. In this study, the effects of connecting rod stiffness and lubricant piezoviscosity on bearing performance were examined by elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis under conditions corresponding to the high-speed operation of an actual engine. The results indicated that under such heavy load conditions housing stiffness greatly affects friction loss because of lubricant piezoviscosity. It was also found that the piezoviscosity of the lubricant has a large effect on bearing performance, as does its viscosity under atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lubricant for Retrofitting Automotive Air Conditioners for Use with HFC-134a

This paper presents a new refrigeration lubricant for use with the HFC-134a retrofit refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems originally designed to use the CFC-12 refrigerant, one of the regulated CFCs scheduled to be phased out. This new retrofit lubricant provides high lubricity and excellent performance characteristics as a result of adopting a newly developed PAG base oil with a block polymer structure and a new antiwear additive formulation. In retrofit systems, it assures sufficient durability for wobble-plate-type variable displacement compressors, which experience severe lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Pitting Resistance of Transmission Gears by Plasma Carburizing Process

The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Technical Paper

Research on Crankshaft System Behavior Based on Coupled Crankshaft-Block Analysis

Achieving a multi-cylinder engine with excellent noise/vibration character sties and low friction at the main bearings requires an optimal design not only for the crankshaft construction but also for the bearing support system of the cylinder block. To accomplish that, it is necessary to understand crankshaft system behavior and the bearing load distribution for each of the main bearings. Crankshaft system behavior has traditionally been evaluated experimentally because of the difficulty in performing calculations to predict resonance behavior over the entire engine speed range. A coupled crankshaft-block analysis method has been developed to calculate crankshaft system behavior by treating vibration and lubrication in a systematic manner. This method has the feature that the coupled behavior of the crankshaft and the cylinder block is analyzed by means of main bearing lubrication calculations. This paper presents the results obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

Development of the Full Active Suspension by Nissan

Nissan has developed a hydraulic active suspension which uses an oil pump as its power source to produce hydraulic pressure that negates external forces acting on the vehicle. As a result, the suspension system is able to control vehicle movement freely and continuously. This control capability makes it possible to provide higher levels of ride comfort and vehicle dynamics than are obtainable with conventional suspension systems. The major features of the hydraulic system include: (1) active bouncing control using a skyhook damper, (2) a frequency-sensitive damping mechanism and (3) active control over roll, dive and squat.
Technical Paper

Development of Four Cylinder SR Engine

The SR engine is a new medium-size, all aluminum (cylinder block, head, rocker cover and oil pan) in-line 4-cylinder gasoline powerplant developed as a replacement for CA engine in Nissan's compact passenger cars. The development aim set for this engine was to achieve excellent power output and ample torque in the middle-and high-speed ranges, as well as a clear, linear engine sound up to the red zone. These performance targets have been achieved through the use of the 4-valve-per-cylinder DOHC design featuring a Y-shaped valve rocker arm system. This system allows a straight intake port for high power output and a narrow valve angle for a compact combustion chamber. The result is ample torque output as well as good fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation High-Performance 4.5-liter V8 Nissan Engine

This paper describes a new 4.5-liter V8 engine, VH45DE, which was developed for use in the INFINITI Q45 sporty luxury sedan that was released in the U.S. and Japanese markets in November 1989. The many V8 engines in use around the world can be broadly devided into two categories. One category is characterized by ample torque at low engine speed and relatively large engine displacement. The other category is characterized by enhanced performance at relatively high engine speeds. The VH45DE engine is a new-generation V8 powerplant that delivers smooth power output at top-end speed and also generates ample torque at low engine speed to maintain good idle stability, and accomplishes it all with the smallest possible displacement. Development efforts were focused on two main goals. The first was to achieve efficient intake air charging. This has been accomplished the intake air resonant point at a relatively high engine speed through appropriate intake branch and collector tuning.
Technical Paper

Nissan's Low-Noise Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

In October 1985, a new wind tunnel was completed and put into operation at the Nissan Technical Center. This paper describes its main specifications and performance features, and gives results of a number of experiments using the new facility. It is a closed-circuit wind tunnel of the so-called Göttingen type, with a semi-open test section. The test section is equipped with two different nozzles, which are used interchangeably depending on the type of testing being carried out. The larger nozzle has a maximum wind velocity of 190 kmh, and a cross-section 4 m high by 7 m wide. The other is 3 m high by 5 m wide and has a maximum wind velocity of 270 kmh. All of the testing equipment in the tunnel, including the axial-flow fan, six-component aerodynamic balance, and traverse system, are operated automatically by a control system made up of several computers linked together. The most notable feature of this wind tunnel is the large reduction that has been made in background noise.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Strength Valve Spring

Development of a high strength valve spring for automotive engines achieves higher power output and better fuel economy. New material which consists of finely structure and subjected to advanced shot peening, has been developed. Stress analysis of the valve spring moving edge, using the finite element method, has been done for effective application. The merits of this new spring have been confirmed by engine experiments.
Technical Paper

High Performance Differential Gear

Excellent fuel economy and high performance have been urgent in Japanese automobile industries. With increasing engine power, many of the power train components have to withstand higher loads. Differential pinion gear being one of those highly stressed parts, excellent fatigue and shock resistance have been demanded. At first the fundamental study on the fatigue and impact crack behavior of carburized components was studied and the new grade composed of 0.18%C-0.7%Mn-1.0%Cr-0.4%Mo was alloy designed. Furthermore, Si and P is reduced less than 0.15 and 0.015%, respectively aiming at the reduction of intergranular oxidation and improved case toughness. The differential gear assembly test has proved that the new grade shows three times as high impact strength as that of conventional steel, SCM418, and almost the same as that of SNCM420 containing 1.8%Ni.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Finding Optimum Planetary Gear Trains for Automatic Transmissions

There has been a growing need to develop more compact automatic transmissions with a greater number of speeds for better fuel economy and better driveability. This study investigated a method for determining suitable planetary gear trains for today's transmissions. A computer program has been developed for application to five-speed transmissions consisting of two planetary gearsets. By analyzing various gear train possibilities, the program can identify which gearsets are suitable for different conditions, including the number of speeds, the number of binding elements, topological suitability and other factors.