Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
A human body model has been developed for conducting personal computer simulations to evaluate physical work loads, especially muscle loads, associated with the driving position and arm and leg motions. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing estimated work loads with electromyographic measurements. Correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the estimated loads and subjective evaluations. The results indicated the regions of the body where loads had the largest impact on the perceived sensation of physical effort and were used to derive an index for evaluating the overall work load of the entire body. The simulation method was used to evaluate control switch positions, driving position and vehicle entry/exit motions.
New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
This paper presents a lightweight, high-performance Lithium-ion Battery System developed jointly by Nissan Motor Co. and Sony Corp. for electric vehicle (EV) use. Electric vehicles are generally powered by a battery pack consisting of numerous cells connected in a series. Management techniques to elicit the maximum performance of the battery pack are needed, including a function for monitoring individual cells to prevent them from over-discharging. Because of high cell voltage, lithium-ion batteries enable the number of cells in a battery pack to be greatly reduced compared with other types of battery systems. They also allow accurate detection of the battery State of Charge (SOC) based on the battery voltage. These characteristics are conducive to the application of battery pack management technology. These concepts provided the basis for the development of a Lithium-ion Battery System for EV application.
The performance capabilities which hold the key to the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) includes range and acceleration. Range can be effectively extended by increasing the size of the batteries used, but it requires a trade-off with acceleration performance which deteriorates due to the increased weight. The FEV-II and Prairie Joy EV exhibited at the 1995 Tokyo Motor Show were equipped with high-performance lithium-ion batteries that achieve both high energy and power densities, to provide an excellent balance of range and acceleration. Futher more, the batteries exceptionally high charging efficiency enables them to accept regenerative energy effectively. This feature improves range, and also allows the battery state of charge (SOC) to be determined accurately. This characteristic was used to develop a highly accurate battery model which was incorporated in a simulation program for predicting EV performance.
In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Recent environmental concerns such as atmospheric pollution and energy conservation have intensified the need to develop pollution-free, energy-efficient vehicles. One such solution is the electric automobile which draws its power from rechargeable batteries. There are few vehicles on the road today because present batteries can store very little energy compared with that of a tank of gasoline. To obtain adequate range, this concept vehicle adopts a new battery which can be recharged to 40% of capacity in six minutes. This super quick charging system makes it possible to recharge the batteries at an electric recharging station just as gasoline-powered vehicles are refilled at service stations. The electric concept vehicle also has improved aerodynamics, reduced rolling resistance and a lighter curb weight, which help to assure adequate range.
The growing number of electronic components used in automobiles lately has given rise to problems concerning the increasing number, size and weight of the wiring harnesses. As one approach to resolving these problems, the authors proposed a multiplex method based on the direction of signal flow in 1988 (SAE880589). However, the need to reduce the number of wiring harnesses circuits further made it necessary to develop a more sophisticated system. This paper presents an on-board Class A local area network (LAN) system that overcomes the problems in conventional multiplexing systems through the use of a master-slave configuration, a polling selection method and a system that integrates of electronic circuits with switch modules.
This paper describes a new approach to solving various problems inherent in conventional multiplexed wiring systems. These problems include the fact that the quantity of cut leads, which determines the cost, is not reduced even though the bulk of the wire harness is decreased. Another problem is that the communications system has a very complex configuration. With the approach proposed here it has been found that the number of cut leads can be reduced by housing the communications circuits individually in each piece of electrical equipment. This can be accomplished by grouping together the wiring in which the signals activating electrical load units all flow in the same direction. Custom LSI circuits have been developed to simplify the communications circuits. All of these developments have been combined into practical multiplexed wiring systems for controlling the power Windows, automatic door locks and power seats.
The Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Program included the thermal reactor as one of the effective ways of oxidizing HC and CO in the exhaust system. However, this was accompanied by very substantial fuel economy penalties, especially in the case of small engine-low emission concept vehicles. Starting with a new concept aimed at obtaining the HC/CO oxidizing trigger temperature in the thermal reactor by modifying engine settings, the authors arrived at an economical technique of matching the thermal reactor to the engine.
The expanded application of automotive electronics in recent years has increased the number of control switches, thus necessitating the optimization of their layout around the driver and improvement in operability. As an effective means in improving operability, switches mounted on the steering wheel have been developed, placing controls closer to drivers for easier access while driving. However, since the switches rotate along with the steering wheel, recognition and operation of those switches left a few things to be desired. Recently we developed a "steering wheel with a non-rotating center switch pad" where the pad section with the switches are kept stationary. In this paper we describe the general outline of this development.
Basic vehicle performance, such as Safety, Comfort and Economy, are by dependent on tire performance, and it is the air pressure in the tire which assures this performance. However, tire air has a tendency to leak naturally, making it necessary to check them periodically. Since a deterioration in vehicle performance resulting from a drop on tire air pressure can not be directly felt by the driver, the number of people maintaining their tires sufficiently is relatively few. There have been many tire pressure warning devices developed which advise the driver when the pressure drops below a prescribed level. Differing from conventional devices, the TWD-III features a 7-step digital display (at a pitch of 0.1 kgf/cm2) which shows the pressure of each tire within an optional range, and it also has a flat tire warning function. The employment of echo effect from clystal vibrator resonance precludes the need to attach a power source on the tire.
An electronic engine control system that uses a microcomputer has been developed. It combines four control systems - fuel injection, ignition timing, EGR and idle speed control - utilizing the engine speed and intake air quantity for its main parameters. The control circuit is composed of an 8-bit microcomputer combining an 8k byte ROM, RAM, a custom designed input/output LSI, and two hybrid integrated circuits, one has voltage regulators and another has input/output interface circuits. The control program consists of a main program, a fail-safe program for noise protection and a check program for diagnostic functions. The main program uses interrupt techniques to control effectively the four items by one microcomputer. The interrupt requests occur from crankshaft position signal and interval timer signals.
This Paper describes a computer-controlled power steering system that has been developed and applied to production vehicles. The system provides full power assist at parking speeds, and gradually decreases assistance with increasing vehicle speed to give a normal unassisted “road feel” at highway speeds. The system enables a driver to choose one assistance characteristic among three choices at the flick of a switch, according to the driver's preference and road conditions. A solenoid-operated bypass valve is used to reduce the hydraulic fluid supply to the steering gear, which results in a heavier steering effort. The most suitable valve characteristic curve which corresponds to the increased pressure in the system due to the applied torque is discussed in this study. It is shown that detection of the velocity of steering wheel rotation and extension of the range of characteristics possible are effective ways to ensure good control over the power assistance.
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
From the beginning of the 1990s, we have been vigorously investigating a high-performance power source system for application to environmental vehicles, focusing our research and development efforts specifically on lithium-ion batteries. In order to adapt a battery system to the requirements of the target vehicle, battery performance must be predicted and designed more accurately. In the case of hybrid electric vehicles, for example, battery power must be reliably assured. Improving battery power requires quantitative analytical methods as fundamental techniques for understanding the basic processes that take place in a battery. From this perspective, we began constructing a battery simulation model from scratch in the middle of the 1990s concurrently with our battery R&D activities. The model simulates electrode reactions and charge transport and has been used in investigating the influence of these factors on battery performance.
This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Aiming for an environmental vehicle, since the 1990s we have narrowed our focus to the development of an exclusive use lithium-ion battery, and we have strongly advanced our examinations into high-performance power supply systems. In order to adapt a battery to meet vehicle requirements, it is necessary to more accurately predict battery performance, and have the ability to design it. For example, in the applicability to HEVs(Hybrid Electric Vehicles), ensuring battery power with certainty is required, but in order to improve battery power, the basic process that occurs inside the battery was restrained, so it is possible that the quantitative analytical approach is the necessary fundamental technology.