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Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Development of an Adaptive Cruise Control System with Stop-and-Go Capability

An Adaptive Cruise Control system with stop-and-go capability has been developed to reduce the driver's workload in traffic jams on expressways. Based on an analysis of driving behavior characteristics in expressway traffic jams, a control system capable of modeling those characteristics accurately has been constructed to provide natural vehicle behavior in low-speed driving. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated with an experimental vehicle, and the results confirmed that it reduces the driver's workload. This paper presents an outline of the system and its effectiveness along with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Road Configuration and Vehicle Attitude by Lane Detection for a Lane-Keeping System

This paper describes an image processing system for tracking a traffic lane by recognizing white lines on the road ahead. The system utilizes the features of the white lines and the Hough transformation to detect white line candidate points in images taken with a CCD camera. The parameters of the road configuration and vehicle attitude are estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This system has been applied to achieve a lane-keeping assistance system that provides steering control based on the host vehicle’s lateral position in its lane.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Sensing System to Infer DriverS Intention

An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Reducing the Driver's Work Load Using a Human Body Model Based on Biomechanisms

A human body model has been developed for conducting personal computer simulations to evaluate physical work loads, especially muscle loads, associated with the driving position and arm and leg motions. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing estimated work loads with electromyographic measurements. Correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the estimated loads and subjective evaluations. The results indicated the regions of the body where loads had the largest impact on the perceived sensation of physical effort and were used to derive an index for evaluating the overall work load of the entire body. The simulation method was used to evaluate control switch positions, driving position and vehicle entry/exit motions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Swirl/Tumble Motion on In-Cylinder Mixture Formation in a Lean-Burn Engine

Flow measurement by laser Doppler velocimetry and visualization of in-cylinder fuel vapor motion by laser induced fluorescence were performed for various types of intake systems that generated several different combinations of swirl and tumble ratios. The measured results indicate that certain swirl and tumble ratios are needed to achieve charge stratification in the cylinder. Performance tests were also carried out to determine the combustion characteristics of each intake system. Then, the features of combustion when the charge stratification was realized was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-Fueled Near-Zero-Emission Vehicle Using an Improved Emission Measurement System

This paper concerns research on an emission control system aimed at reducing emission levels to well below the ULEV standards. As emission levels are further reduced in the coming years, it is projected that measurement error will increase substantially. Therefore, an analysis was made of the conventional measurement system, which revealed the following major problems. 1. The conventional analyzer, having a minimum full-scale THC range of 10 ppmC, cannot measure lower concentration emissions with high accuracy. 2. Hydrocarbons are produced in various components of the measurement system, increasing measurement error. 3. Even if an analyzer with a minimum full-scale THC range of 1 ppmC is used in an effort to measure low concentrations, the 1 ppmC measurement range cannot be applied when the dilution air contains a high THC concentration. This makes it impossible to obtain highly accurate measurements. 4.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lithium-ion Battery System for EVs

This paper presents a lightweight, high-performance Lithium-ion Battery System developed jointly by Nissan Motor Co. and Sony Corp. for electric vehicle (EV) use. Electric vehicles are generally powered by a battery pack consisting of numerous cells connected in a series. Management techniques to elicit the maximum performance of the battery pack are needed, including a function for monitoring individual cells to prevent them from over-discharging. Because of high cell voltage, lithium-ion batteries enable the number of cells in a battery pack to be greatly reduced compared with other types of battery systems. They also allow accurate detection of the battery State of Charge (SOC) based on the battery voltage. These characteristics are conducive to the application of battery pack management technology. These concepts provided the basis for the development of a Lithium-ion Battery System for EV application.
Technical Paper

Development of a Performance Prediction Program for EVs Powered by Lithium-ion Batteries

The performance capabilities which hold the key to the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) includes range and acceleration. Range can be effectively extended by increasing the size of the batteries used, but it requires a trade-off with acceleration performance which deteriorates due to the increased weight. The FEV-II and Prairie Joy EV exhibited at the 1995 Tokyo Motor Show were equipped with high-performance lithium-ion batteries that achieve both high energy and power densities, to provide an excellent balance of range and acceleration. Futher more, the batteries exceptionally high charging efficiency enables them to accept regenerative energy effectively. This feature improves range, and also allows the battery state of charge (SOC) to be determined accurately. This characteristic was used to develop a highly accurate battery model which was incorporated in a simulation program for predicting EV performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Road Recognition Using Ar-Model

This paper describes an image processing method for recognizing white lines on the road ahead to accomplish automatic lane tracking. The behavior of detected points on the white lines can be regarded as multi-channel time-series data. The stochastic behavior of each point correlates with not only its own past behavior but also the behavior of other points around it. Behavior is identified by using a multi-variable auto-regressive (AR) model. This method can estimate the road configuration ahead logically even if the points cannot be detected clearly because a line is discontinuous or is hidden by a forward vehicle.
Technical Paper

Interactive Information Delivery Navigation System

In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Technical Paper

Application of a Control System CAD Program to a Study of an Electronic Engine Control System

Automotive electronic control systems have tended to become more complex in recent years as a result of stronger requirements for environmental friendliness and higher levels of driveability. The first step in developing a control system is to study the required logic and system configuration at the initial stage of new vehicle development. The authors have incorporated an engine-vehicle model in a control system CAD program to simulate the logic needed for various control tasks. This paper presents a typical application in which a behavior of some outputs, such as engine torque and acceleration, was analyzed, and the electronic controls needed to assure driveability were identified. The construction and operation of a controller-in-the-loop system are also described.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Compound Fuel and Fluorescent Tracer Combination for Use with Laser Induced Fluorescence

Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a useful method for visualizing the distribution of the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber. The way this method is applied mainly depends on the fluorescent tracer used, such as biacetyl, toluene, various aldehydes, fluoranthene or diethylketone, among others. Gasoline strongly absorbs light in the UV region, for example, at the 248-nm wavelength of broadband KrF excimer laser radiation. Therefore, when using this type of laser, iso-octane is employed as the fuel because it is transparent to 248-nm UV light. However, since the distillation curves of iso-octane and gasoline are different, it can be expected that their vaporization characteristics in the intake port and cylinder would also be different. The aim of this study was to find a better fuel for use with LIF at a broadband wavelength of 248 nm. Three tasks were undertaken in this study.
Technical Paper

Development of a Headway Distance Control System

This paper describes a headway distance control system for platoon driving on an automated highway system (AHS). The system implemented on a test vehicle is described first, followed by a description of a vehicle control method based on the use of throttle and brake actuators. This method makes it possible to obtain the target acceleration and deceleration regardless of the vehicle speed range and the rate of acceleration or deceleration. Experimental and simulation results obtained with this method are presented. A control method is then described that uses inter-vehicle communication and laser radar to maintain a constant headway between vehicles. The results of simulations and driving tests conducted with three vehicles are presented to illustrate that the use of inter-vehicle communication is highly effective in improving headway control performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Link Front Suspension

Nissan will soon be installing a multi-link front suspension in it's new 300ZX model. This suspension allows maximum improvement in controllability and stability, due to an optimum alignment given by it's unique independent kingpin mechanism. The incorporation of attitude control also provides flat ride by greatly mitigating jacking up and nose diving motions. This paper discusses the development objectives, and experimental data obtained in tests of the new suspension installed in the new 300ZX.
Technical Paper

Development of a Practical DSP Car Audio System

Digital signal processors (DSPs) are being used widely for sound field reproduction. However, it is difficult to apply a DSP to a car audio system because of the complicated acoustic characteristics of the passenger compartment. The authors have developed a new car audio system which employs special DSP software and a new speaker layout to provide excellent presence. The DSP has five output channels to generate stereophonic reflection from the front and rear speakers. The DSP software is programmed for each individual car model. A center speaker and A-pillar tweeters are used to produce a natural sound field in front through effective utilization of reflection from the windshield. This system is featured in 1992 Nissan models.