Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
This paper presents a new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 engine that has been developed for use in the next Nissan Maxima. The distinctive features of this new engine, VQ30DE, is its compact, lightweight design and excellent fuel economy. The basic construction of the engine is characterized by its 60-degree V6 configuration, chain-driven DOHC and high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block. A two-way cooling system was adopted with the aim of shortening the warm-up time of the cylinder liners. The new engine has been designed to comply with the tougher emission standards, the OBD-II requirements and California's new evaporative emission standard.
A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Vehicle roll behavior has a large influence on how drivers evaluate handling performance. This paper describes an approach to quantifying roll behavior experimentally and presents a method for designing suspension properties to improve the sensation of roll. In this study, it was found that using pitch motion as an evaluation index results in good correspondence with subjective evaluations. To obtain acceptable roll behavior, it is important to control pitch motion during roll to a lower mode at the front end relative to the rear. This desirable behavior can be achieved by designing suitable roll center characteristics, nonlinear load changes and damping force coefficients.
This paper presents a lightweight, high-performance Lithium-ion Battery System developed jointly by Nissan Motor Co. and Sony Corp. for electric vehicle (EV) use. Electric vehicles are generally powered by a battery pack consisting of numerous cells connected in a series. Management techniques to elicit the maximum performance of the battery pack are needed, including a function for monitoring individual cells to prevent them from over-discharging. Because of high cell voltage, lithium-ion batteries enable the number of cells in a battery pack to be greatly reduced compared with other types of battery systems. They also allow accurate detection of the battery State of Charge (SOC) based on the battery voltage. These characteristics are conducive to the application of battery pack management technology. These concepts provided the basis for the development of a Lithium-ion Battery System for EV application.
The performance capabilities which hold the key to the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) includes range and acceleration. Range can be effectively extended by increasing the size of the batteries used, but it requires a trade-off with acceleration performance which deteriorates due to the increased weight. The FEV-II and Prairie Joy EV exhibited at the 1995 Tokyo Motor Show were equipped with high-performance lithium-ion batteries that achieve both high energy and power densities, to provide an excellent balance of range and acceleration. Futher more, the batteries exceptionally high charging efficiency enables them to accept regenerative energy effectively. This feature improves range, and also allows the battery state of charge (SOC) to be determined accurately. This characteristic was used to develop a highly accurate battery model which was incorporated in a simulation program for predicting EV performance.
The mechanism causing the micro slip characteristic of a metal CVT belt during torque transmission was analyzed, focusing on the gap distribution between the elements. It was hypothesized that gaps between the elements cause slip to occur between the elements and the pulleys when the belt is squeezed between the two halves of the pulleys, and the slip ratio was calculated theoretically on that assumption. The μ-v (friction coefficient versus sliding velocity) characteristic between the elements and the pulleys was measured and the results were used in calculating the slip ratio. As a result, a simulation procedure was developed for predicting the slip-limit torque of the belt on the basis of calculations. The slip ratio found by simulation and the calculated slip-limit torque showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the validity of the simulation procedure.
Over the past several decades, vehicle dynamics have been treated mainly on the basis of linear theories. An actual vehicle, however, also shows nonlinear properties such as roll behavior induced by movement of the roll axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vehicle roll dynamics in the nonlinear range. Suspensions were divided into two categories and computer-aided engineering (CAE) was used to conduct analyses of complicated kinematics. The results obtained provided theoretical support for designing the Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension, a new type of suspension for front-wheel-drive cars.
The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
A compact, high-performance and durable metal-supported catalyst has been developed by using the properties of the metal support effectively. The advantages of the metal-surpported catalyst against the ceramic-supported one are higher geometrical surface area, higher heat conductivity and thinner wall thickness. Higher geometlical surface area and higher heat conductivity lead to higher conversion efficiency after durability test and it allows reduction in catalyst volume. And the thinner wall thickness lowers gas flow resistance. But also, the metal-supported catalyst has the disadvantage of larger heat expansion and it requires special structure and material.
Recent environmental concerns such as atmospheric pollution and energy conservation have intensified the need to develop pollution-free, energy-efficient vehicles. One such solution is the electric automobile which draws its power from rechargeable batteries. There are few vehicles on the road today because present batteries can store very little energy compared with that of a tank of gasoline. To obtain adequate range, this concept vehicle adopts a new battery which can be recharged to 40% of capacity in six minutes. This super quick charging system makes it possible to recharge the batteries at an electric recharging station just as gasoline-powered vehicles are refilled at service stations. The electric concept vehicle also has improved aerodynamics, reduced rolling resistance and a lighter curb weight, which help to assure adequate range.
Traction control systems (TCSs) serve to control brake pressure and engine torque, thereby reducing driving wheel spin for improved stability and handling. Systems are divided into two basic types by the brake control configuration. One type is a one-channel left-right common control system and the other is a two-channel individual control system. This paper presents an analysis of these two types of TCS configurations in terms of handling, acceleration, stability, yaw convergence and other performance parameters. The systems are compared with and without a limited-slip differential (LSD) under various road conditions, based on experimental data and computer simulations. As a result of this work, certain Nissan models are now equipped with a new Nissan Traction Control System with a rear viscous LSD (Nissan V-TCS), which provides both the advantages of a rear viscous LSD in a small slip region and a two-channel TCS in a large slip region.
Nissan has developed a hydraulic active suspension which uses an oil pump as its power source to produce hydraulic pressure that negates external forces acting on the vehicle. As a result, the suspension system is able to control vehicle movement freely and continuously. This control capability makes it possible to provide higher levels of ride comfort and vehicle dynamics than are obtainable with conventional suspension systems. The major features of the hydraulic system include: (1) active bouncing control using a skyhook damper, (2) a frequency-sensitive damping mechanism and (3) active control over roll, dive and squat.
This paper describes a new 4.5-liter V8 engine, VH45DE, which was developed for use in the INFINITI Q45 sporty luxury sedan that was released in the U.S. and Japanese markets in November 1989. The many V8 engines in use around the world can be broadly devided into two categories. One category is characterized by ample torque at low engine speed and relatively large engine displacement. The other category is characterized by enhanced performance at relatively high engine speeds. The VH45DE engine is a new-generation V8 powerplant that delivers smooth power output at top-end speed and also generates ample torque at low engine speed to maintain good idle stability, and accomplishes it all with the smallest possible displacement. Development efforts were focused on two main goals. The first was to achieve efficient intake air charging. This has been accomplished the intake air resonant point at a relatively high engine speed through appropriate intake branch and collector tuning.
Excellent fuel economy and high performance have been urgent in Japanese automobile industries. With increasing engine power, many of the power train components have to withstand higher loads. Differential pinion gear being one of those highly stressed parts, excellent fatigue and shock resistance have been demanded. At first the fundamental study on the fatigue and impact crack behavior of carburized components was studied and the new grade composed of 0.18%C-0.7%Mn-1.0%Cr-0.4%Mo was alloy designed. Furthermore, Si and P is reduced less than 0.15 and 0.015%, respectively aiming at the reduction of intergranular oxidation and improved case toughness. The differential gear assembly test has proved that the new grade shows three times as high impact strength as that of conventional steel, SCM418, and almost the same as that of SNCM420 containing 1.8%Ni.
This paper describes the Nissan R01A model automatic transmission, focusing in particular on the basic design concept, control system and the various control techniques it incorporates. This 4-speed transmission, installed in Nissan's rear-wheel-drive vehicles, was designed from the ground up and significant construction and control mechanism improvements were made over the former conventional model. With a compact gear arrangement consisting of two sets of planetary gears, this transmission features a new electro-hydraulic control system which not only provides optimum shifting and lock-up points, but also modulates the hydraulic pressure electronically to achieve superior shift quality. Control over the transmission is integrated with engine control to deliver improved driveability and better fuel economy. Different transmission variations have been developed to create a versatile lineup for rear-wheel-drive vehicles.
There has been a growing need to develop more compact automatic transmissions with a greater number of speeds for better fuel economy and better driveability. This study investigated a method for determining suitable planetary gear trains for today's transmissions. A computer program has been developed for application to five-speed transmissions consisting of two planetary gearsets. By analyzing various gear train possibilities, the program can identify which gearsets are suitable for different conditions, including the number of speeds, the number of binding elements, topological suitability and other factors.