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Technical Paper

Prediction of cooling flow rate through the front grille using flow analysis with a multi-level mesh system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0306
A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Technical Paper

Research on Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Low-Friction Valve Lifters

2003-03-03
2003-01-1101
One important development area for obtaining better fuel economy is to reduce mechanical friction losses in engine components. The valvetrain is a significant source of mechanical friction loss in an automobile engine, especially at low speeds where fuel economy is most important. This paper describes the potential use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings at the cam/follower interface in a bucket-type valvetrain. Using a pin-on-disk tester, a motored valvetrain friction apparatus and a bench test rig, the frictional performance of DLC coatings was tested. Experimental data indicate that under a lubricated condition, DLC coatings produced by a plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition) technique did not show a sufficient effect on reducing friction (only a 20-25% reduction) contrary to our expectations. DLC coatings prepared by arc-ion plating and containing less hydrogen showed superior frictional performance compared with CVD-DLC coatings under a lubricated condition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gas Flow and Mixture Properties on Engine-Out HC Emissions

1996-10-01
961952
The geometry and area of the notch in the swirl control valve installed in the intake port were varied to analyze the effects on HC emissions. A swirl control valve functions to promote the formation of a homogeneous mixture, enabling the amount of liquid fuel supplied to the cylinder to be reduced. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an added effect through the combined use of a swirl control valve and an auxiliary-air type of injector for assisting fuel atomization. Tumble (vertical swirl) flow fields are effective in shortening the combustion period. This results in a higher exhaust gas temperature at an equivalent level of combustion stability. It was thought that swirl flow fields produce residual gas flow in the cylinder after the completion of the main combustion period. It is surmised that the residual gas flow functions to diffuse and promote after-burning of the unburned HC layer.
Technical Paper

Effects of Swirl/Tumble Motion on In-Cylinder Mixture Formation in a Lean-Burn Engine

1996-10-01
961994
Flow measurement by laser Doppler velocimetry and visualization of in-cylinder fuel vapor motion by laser induced fluorescence were performed for various types of intake systems that generated several different combinations of swirl and tumble ratios. The measured results indicate that certain swirl and tumble ratios are needed to achieve charge stratification in the cylinder. Performance tests were also carried out to determine the combustion characteristics of each intake system. Then, the features of combustion when the charge stratification was realized was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Crank Pin Journal Temperature Based on the Oil Flow Rate

1998-05-04
981403
Improving the durability and reliability of crankshaft bearings has become an important issue for automotive engines recently because of conflicting demands for lower fuel consumption and higher power output. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing which is subjected to harsher operating conditions on account of these requirements. It is known that the crank pin journal temperature is an indicator of big-end bearing seizure. Having a simple method for predicting the crank pin journal temperature with the required accuracy at the design stage is indispensable to efficient engine development. In this study, analyses were first conducted to determine the oil flow rate at the big-end bearing which is a major determinant of the crank pin journal temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Pressure Fueling System for a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981458
A direct-injection gasoline engine that uses a stratified charge combustion process was developed by Nissan and released in the Japanese market toward the end of 1997. This new engine is based on Nissan's VQ engine, which enjoys a good reputation for its quick throttle response and low fuel consumption, and has been developed to accomplish the objectives of reducing fuel consumption by stratified charge combustion and securing high power output. The fuel injectors are connected by an arrangement of lightweight, small-diameter fuel lines that distribute fuel to each injector under high pressure. This system was adopted in order to reconcile the use of an aerodynamic straight intake port with the desired fuel injection position. The use of a casting net injector, which uniformly distributes the fuel spray above the piston, makes it possible to accomplish stratified charge combustion with a shallow-bowl piston.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Performance in a New Direct-Injection SI V-6 Engine

1998-05-04
981435
One advantage of a direct-injection S.I. engine is lower fuel consumption due to the use of lean stratified charge combustion. Another advantage is greater power output resulting from evaporation of the fuel in the cylinder. A critical factor in making the most of these advantages is to achieve optimum mixture formation for both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion. To achieve the optimum mixture, the new direct-injection S.I. V-6 engine adopts a piston with a shallow bowl, a valve that changes in-cylinder air motion between swirl and tumble by opening and closing one side of separated air intake port, an air intake port that has optimized inward and port angle to induces swirl in the piston bowl, and a CASTING NET injector that injects the hollow cone spray in a deflected pattern toward the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Turbulence and Cycle-by-Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion

1995-02-01
950813
Combinations of swirl flow and tumble flow generated by 13 types of swirl control valve were tested by using both impulse steady flow rig and LDV. Comparison between the steady flow characteristics and the result of LDV measurement under motoring condition shows that tumble flow generates turbulence in combustion chamber more effectively than swirl flow does, and that swirling motion reduces the cycle by cycle variation of mean velocity in combustion chamber which tends to be generated by tumbling motion. Performance tests are also carried out under the condition of homogeneous charge. Tumble flow promotes the combustion speed more strongly than expected from its turbulence intensity measured by LDV. It is also shown that lean limit air fuel ratio does not have a strong relation with cycle variation of mean velocity but with turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940991
This paper presents a new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 engine that has been developed for use in the next Nissan Maxima. The distinctive features of this new engine, VQ30DE, is its compact, lightweight design and excellent fuel economy. The basic construction of the engine is characterized by its 60-degree V6 configuration, chain-driven DOHC and high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block. A two-way cooling system was adopted with the aim of shortening the warm-up time of the cylinder liners. The new engine has been designed to comply with the tougher emission standards, the OBD-II requirements and California's new evaporative emission standard.
Technical Paper

Application of Predictive Noise and Vibration Analysis to the Development of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940993
The target performance of a new engine has to be obtained under various restrictions such as cost and weihgt. It is particularly important to predict the engine noise and vibration performance at an early stage. For this purpose the analytical methods have been developed, which include the prediction of the absolute noise and vibration level by inputting a given exciting force into the model. These methods were applied to the development of the new engine. As a result, the characteristics of an aluminum cylinder block were used effectively to achieve a new lightweight V6 engine with low noise and vibration levels.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Friction Reduction Techniques for the Direct-Acting Valve Train System of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940992
An investigation was made of techniques for reducing the friction of lightweighted direct-acting valve train systems. The techniques examined included improving the cam/follower surface finish and reducing the valve spring load. The characteristics of each approach and the valve train friction reduction obtained with each one were clarified by experimentation and analysis. As a result, the friction reduction techniques analyzed in this work reduce the friction level of a direct-acting valve train by approximately 40% in comparison with the previous valve train. These techniques have been applied for the direct-acting valve train system of new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 Nissan engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on Engine Bearing Performance Focusing on the Viscosity-Pressure Characteristic of the Lubricant and Housing Stiffness

1996-05-01
961144
It is important to understand the influence of housing stiffness on bearing performance, particularly for the connecting rod bearings of automotive engines. It is known that the engine lubricant shows a piezoviscous characteristic whereby its viscosity changes under the influence of pressure. Engine bearings under a heavy load are apt to be influenced in this way. In this study, the effects of connecting rod stiffness and lubricant piezoviscosity on bearing performance were examined by elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis under conditions corresponding to the high-speed operation of an actual engine. The results indicated that under such heavy load conditions housing stiffness greatly affects friction loss because of lubricant piezoviscosity. It was also found that the piezoviscosity of the lubricant has a large effect on bearing performance, as does its viscosity under atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

1996-05-01
961125
Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Valve Train Wear Test Procedure for Gasoline Engine Oil

1994-03-01
940794
An analysis was made of wear factors by investigating the effect of engine operating conditions on valve train wear. It was found that cam nose wear increased as larger amounts of combustion products, including nitrogen oxides and unburned gasoline, became intermixed with the engine oil. Based on these results, a valve train wear test procedure has been developed for evaluating cam nose and rocker arm wear under engine firing conditions. It has been confirmed that this test procedure correlates will with ASTM Sequence VE test and CCMC TU-3 test.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Based Methods of Analyzing Hydrocarbon Species

1994-03-01
940740
Gas chromatographic methods for analyzing hydrocarbon species in vehicle exhaust emissions were compared in terms of their collection efficiency, detection limit, repeatability and number of species detected using cylinder gas and tailpipe emission samples. The main methods compared were a Tenax cold trap injection (TCT) method (C5-C12 HCs) and a cold trap injection (CTI) method (C2-C4 HCs; C5-C12 HCs). Our own direct (DIR) method was used to confirm the collection efficiencies. Both methods yielded good results, but the CTI method showed low collection efficiency for some C2-C4 HCs. Measurement of individual species is needed with this method for accurate analysis of tailpipe emissions. Both the CTI method and the TCT method combined with the DIR method for determining C2-C4 HCs yielded nearly the same ozone specific reactivity values for the NMHC species analyzed.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out and Tail-Pipe Emission Reduction Technologies of V-6 LEVs

1998-02-23
980674
Compared with in-line 4-cylinder engines, V-6 engines show a slower rise in exhaust gas temperature, requiring a longer time for catalysts to become active, and they also emit higher levels of engine-out emissions. In this study, The combination of a new type of catalyst, and optimized ignition timing and air-fuel ratio control achieved quicker catalyst light-off. Additionally, engine-out emissions were substantially reduced by using a swirl control valve to strengthen in-cylinder gas flow, adopting electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and reducing the crevice volume by decreasing the top land height of the pistons. A vehicle incorporating these emission reduction technologies reduced the emission level through the first phase of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) by 60-70% compared with the Tier 1 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Research on Crankshaft System Behavior Based on Coupled Crankshaft-Block Analysis

1997-10-01
972922
Achieving a multi-cylinder engine with excellent noise/vibration character sties and low friction at the main bearings requires an optimal design not only for the crankshaft construction but also for the bearing support system of the cylinder block. To accomplish that, it is necessary to understand crankshaft system behavior and the bearing load distribution for each of the main bearings. Crankshaft system behavior has traditionally been evaluated experimentally because of the difficulty in performing calculations to predict resonance behavior over the entire engine speed range. A coupled crankshaft-block analysis method has been developed to calculate crankshaft system behavior by treating vibration and lubrication in a systematic manner. This method has the feature that the coupled behavior of the crankshaft and the cylinder block is analyzed by means of main bearing lubrication calculations. This paper presents the results obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Compound Fuel and Fluorescent Tracer Combination for Use with Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-10-01
952465
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a useful method for visualizing the distribution of the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber. The way this method is applied mainly depends on the fluorescent tracer used, such as biacetyl, toluene, various aldehydes, fluoranthene or diethylketone, among others. Gasoline strongly absorbs light in the UV region, for example, at the 248-nm wavelength of broadband KrF excimer laser radiation. Therefore, when using this type of laser, iso-octane is employed as the fuel because it is transparent to 248-nm UV light. However, since the distillation curves of iso-octane and gasoline are different, it can be expected that their vaporization characteristics in the intake port and cylinder would also be different. The aim of this study was to find a better fuel for use with LIF at a broadband wavelength of 248 nm. Three tasks were undertaken in this study.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

1992-02-01
920239
An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
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