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Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Oil Temperature Prediction Method Using 3D Model Simulation

Being able to plan each powertrain performance parameter with improved accuracy is an important factor for shortening the development period. In this regard, advance temperature predictions are particularly important because of the strong correlation between the thermal design and the vehicle layout, engine proper and other related parts. At present, it is still difficult to make thermal performance predictions for the engine oil temperature. There are many examples of studies in which the oil temperature was predicted in a one-dimensional circuit. In those studies, either experimental data were used for the heat release from engine components to the oil or calculations were made with a model that was converted empirically from three-dimensions to one-dimension. Because the mechanisms of oil temperature changes inside the engine are not well understood in detail, it is not possible to examine how modifications of the engine structure might affect the oil temperature.
Technical Paper

Prediction of cooling flow rate through the front grille using flow analysis with a multi-level mesh system

A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Technical Paper

Front-End Airflow Rate Simulation

Front-end airflow predictions are generally carried out at the styling stage in the development process for vehicle cooling systems. These predictions have taken on increasing importance in recent years in studying the heat radiation capacities of the radiator. This paper presents a method for simulating front-end airflow rates. Two- and three-dimensional front-end airflow simulations are iirst analyzed experimentally. A technique for predicting a three-dimensional airflow from a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional airflow is then examined, and a comparison is made with actual vehicle data. A sample application of this simulation method is presented and a comparison is made with experimental data. Good quantitative agreement is seen between the calculated and experimental results. This paper also discusses the present status of three-dimensional analysis which is expected to become a major trend in the future.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Predicting Heat Rejection to the Engine Coolant

The higher output levels attained by recent automotive engines have been accompanied with an increase in the amount of heat generated by the engine. This higher heat release level, together with the styling trend toward a lower hood line, requires a method for accurately predicting heat release to the engine coolant. In this research, the heat flow path in the engine was separated into several components and equations were formulated for estimating the amount of heat released by each component. The whole heat release to the engine coolant was obtained by totaling the heat release of each component.
Technical Paper

The Development of Engine Evaporative Cooling System

A fundamental heat transfer study has “been conducted on a new engine cooling system in which heat is removed from the engine through the boiling process in the water jacket and is radiated to the air through a condenser. By carrying out a basic experiment using a model boiler as a substitute for the cylinder head water jacket and a real engine experiment, the following cooling system characteristics were found: First, a good heat transfer coefficient can be obtained up to an order of 103 kw/m2 heat flow with only a small coolant flow. Second, it is possible to obtain a more uniform temperature distribution over the engine structure by making use of the cooling by boiling characteristics which remove more heat from hotter surfaces than from cooler ones. Third, the good response of this system's variable temperature control procedure greatly reduces knocking, which in turn increases power.
Technical Paper

New Design of Cooling System with Computer Simulation and Engine Compartment Simulator

The engine cooling system is required to provide much higher performance today owing to the improved power output of engines and the trend toward a more compact engine compartment. For front engine/rear drive vehicles equipped with a fluid coupling drive fan, one of the main problems that must be dealt with is the rise in coolant temperature during idling. This paper presents a new method to simulate the engine coolant temperature under idling condition, and an improved engine cooling system that features a totally redesigned fan blade for maximum efficiency. This new system, consisting of a high performance cooling fan shroud and coupling, achieves a substantial noise reduction and contributes to fuel economy and power output improvements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.