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Technical Paper

Development of a High-Pressure Fueling System for a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

A direct-injection gasoline engine that uses a stratified charge combustion process was developed by Nissan and released in the Japanese market toward the end of 1997. This new engine is based on Nissan's VQ engine, which enjoys a good reputation for its quick throttle response and low fuel consumption, and has been developed to accomplish the objectives of reducing fuel consumption by stratified charge combustion and securing high power output. The fuel injectors are connected by an arrangement of lightweight, small-diameter fuel lines that distribute fuel to each injector under high pressure. This system was adopted in order to reconcile the use of an aerodynamic straight intake port with the desired fuel injection position. The use of a casting net injector, which uniformly distributes the fuel spray above the piston, makes it possible to accomplish stratified charge combustion with a shallow-bowl piston.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Performance in a New Direct-Injection SI V-6 Engine

One advantage of a direct-injection S.I. engine is lower fuel consumption due to the use of lean stratified charge combustion. Another advantage is greater power output resulting from evaporation of the fuel in the cylinder. A critical factor in making the most of these advantages is to achieve optimum mixture formation for both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion. To achieve the optimum mixture, the new direct-injection S.I. V-6 engine adopts a piston with a shallow bowl, a valve that changes in-cylinder air motion between swirl and tumble by opening and closing one side of separated air intake port, an air intake port that has optimized inward and port angle to induces swirl in the piston bowl, and a CASTING NET injector that injects the hollow cone spray in a deflected pattern toward the spark plug.
Technical Paper

A New Nissan 3.0-liter V-6 Twin-cam Twin-turbo Engine with Dual Intake and Exhaust Systems

As a new generation sports car engine to lead the field in the 1990s, a 3.0 liter, 60°V, type 6 cylinder, 4 cam, 24 valve engine (VG30DETT) has been developed to achieve the utmost in high performance levels and reliability. it has been mounted on the new model 300ZX and announced in the North America and Japanese markets. The VG30DETT engine is based on the previous VG30DE engine (the engine mounted on the former model 300ZX designed for the market in Japan). The main components, the major driving and the lubrication systems including such parts as the crank shaft,con-rod, cylinder block, piston, exhaust manifold, and oil pan of the VG30DE were thoroughly reviewed and revised. The VG30DETT engine is the result of redesigning the structure of the engine itself and its parts and components to assure durability under, high-level performance requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation High-Performance 4.5-liter V8 Nissan Engine

This paper describes a new 4.5-liter V8 engine, VH45DE, which was developed for use in the INFINITI Q45 sporty luxury sedan that was released in the U.S. and Japanese markets in November 1989. The many V8 engines in use around the world can be broadly devided into two categories. One category is characterized by ample torque at low engine speed and relatively large engine displacement. The other category is characterized by enhanced performance at relatively high engine speeds. The VH45DE engine is a new-generation V8 powerplant that delivers smooth power output at top-end speed and also generates ample torque at low engine speed to maintain good idle stability, and accomplishes it all with the smallest possible displacement. Development efforts were focused on two main goals. The first was to achieve efficient intake air charging. This has been accomplished the intake air resonant point at a relatively high engine speed through appropriate intake branch and collector tuning.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 12 Valve 4 Cylinder Engine

The 1.5 1 GA15 engine is a new inline 4 cylinder engine. The GA15 fully meets the major development objectives of sufficient torque at low and middle engine speeds, high power output, good fuel economy and quiet engine operation. Its structure features a compact combustion chamber with a small bore and long stroke, aerodynamic intake ports, a stiff engine cylinder block with a deep skirt and bearing beam, a newly designed silentrunning chaine, and pistons with full floating pins. High quality was achieved by adopting the latest methods in its development: vibration analysis of the assembled engine and transmission, FEM model, rigidity analysis of the cylinder block and head, and analysis of air flow in the intake port and movement of the timing chain.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Chamber Insulation on the Heat Rejection and Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Engines

Experiments were conducted with 4-cylinder and single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines to examine the effects of combustion chamber insulation on heat rejection and thermal efficiency. The combustion chamber was insulated by using a silicon nitride piston cavity that was shrink-fitted into a titanium alloy crown. The effect of insulation on heat rejection was examined on the basis of heat release calculations made from cylinder pressure time histories. High-speed photography was used to investigate combustion phenomena. The results showed that heat rejection was influenced by the combustion chamber geometry and swirl ratio and that it was reduced by insulating the combustion chamber. However, because combustion deteriorated, it was not possible to obtain an improvement in thermal efficiency equivalent to the reduction in heat rejection.
Technical Paper

Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanisms of unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a small direct - injection (DI) diesel engine. HC emission levels of small DI diesel engines are considerably higher than those of corresponding indirect - injection (IDI) diesel engines, even when sacless injection nozzles that are effective in reducing HC emissions are installed on them. In this study, analytical engine tests were performed to evaluate the relative significance of various potential sources of HC emissions from a small DI diesel engine equipped with sacless type injectors.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston and Piston Ring Assembly Friction Force

A new method for measuring friction has been developed in order to analyze piston and piston ring assembly friction force during engine operation. While this method does not require extensive modification to the piston or cylinder, two extra compression and expansion strokes each are added at the end of the conventional four-stroke cycle. In these measuring strokes, the gas pressure and temperature are maintained at firing levels, and friction force characteristics of the piston and piston ring assembly are measured continuously while the burned gas is compressed and expanded.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

Mechanism of suddenly occurring behavior of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in boosted spark ignition (SI) engines was analyzed with various experimental methodologies. Endoscope-visualized 1st cycle of LSPI showed droplet-like luminous flame kernels as the origin of flame propagation before spark ignition. With the oil lubricated visualization engine, droplets flying were observed only after enough accumulation of fuel at piston crevice. Also, it was confirmed that subsequent cycles of LSPI occur only after enough operation time. These results indicated that local accumulation of liner adhered fuel and saturation of oil dilution can be a contributing factor to the sudden occurrence of LSPI.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Mixture Formation in a Direct Injection SI Engine with Optimized In-Cylinder Swirl Air Motion

This paper presents a study of mixture formation in the combustion chamber of a direct-injection SI engine. In-cylinder flow measurement was conducted using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), and visualization of fuel vapor behavior was done using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Further, fast response flame ionization detector (FID) was used to measure the hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug. Thereby mixture concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug, within the mixture distribution observed using LIF, were quantified. Results revealed that an upward flow forms near the center of the cylinder in the latter half of the compression stroke and goes from the piston crown toward the cylinder head. This upward flow is caused by the synergistic effect of the swirl motion generated in the cylinder and the cylindrical bowl provided in the piston crown eccentrically to the central axis of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Second Generation of High-Response V6 Engine Series (3.0 and 3.5 Liters)

Since the VQ engine series of lightweight, compact, low friction and high response engines was released in 1994, they have been rated highly both at home and abroad. Two new 3.0-liter and 3.5-liter V6 engines have been developed as the second generation of the VQ engine and introduced into the North American market. Continuing the characteristics of the first generation, this new VQ engine series achieves a performance figure of 98Nm/L as a result of adopting part shapes defined with a three-dimensional analysis method. The new VQ30DE engine adopts a plastic intake manifold which incorporates a variable induction system with a rotary valve. The new VQ35DE engine adopts a continuously variable valve timing control system and a long branch intake manifold with an inertial induction system. It also incorporates a new concept piston and a hot coined connecting rod to reduce its reciprocating inertial mass.
Technical Paper

Direct Heat Loss to Combustion Chamber Walls in a D.I. Diesel Engine-Development of Measurement Technique and Evaluation of Direct Heat Loss to Cylinder Liner Wall

The purpose of this study is to clarify the state of heat loss to the cylinder liner of the tested engine of which piston and cylinder head were previously measured. The authors' group developed an original measurement technique of instantaneous surface temperature at the cylinder liner wall using thin-film thermocouples. The temperature was measured at 36 points in total. The instantaneous heat flux was calculated by heat transfer analysis using measurement results of the temperature at the wall. As a result, the heat loss ratio to all combustion chamber walls is evaluated except the intake and exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Compact and Long-Stroke Multiple-Link VCR Engine Mechanism

A multiple-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism is suitable for a long-stroke engine by providing the following characteristics: (1) a nearly symmetric piston stroke and (2) an upper link that stays vertical around the time of the maximum combustion pressure. These two characteristics work to reduce force inputs to the piston. The maximum inertial force around top dead center is reduced by the effect of the first characteristic. The second characteristic is effective in reducing piston side thrust force and helps ease piston pin lubrication. Because of the combined effect of these characteristics, the piston skirt can be made smaller and the piston pin can be shortened. That makes it possible for the piston skirt and piston pin to move between the counterweights, resulting in a downward extension of the piston stroke. As a result, a longer-stroke engine mechanism can be achieved without making the cylinder block taller.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Longer Stroke on Improving Fuel Economy of a Multiple-Link VCR Engine

Some automakers have been studying variable compression ratio (VCR) technology as one possible way of improving fuel economy. In previous studies, we have developed a VCR mechanism of a unique multiple-link configuration that achieves a piston stroke characterized by semi-sinusoidal oscillation and lower piston acceleration at top dead center than on conventional mechanisms. By controlling compression ratio with this multiple-link VCR mechanism so that it optimally matches any operating condition, the mechanism has demonstrated that both lower fuel consumption and higher output power are simultaneously possible. However, it has also been observed that fuel consumption does not reduce further once the compression ratio reached a certain level. This study focused on the fact that the piston-stroke characteristic obtained with the multiple-link mechanism is suitable to a longer stroke.
Technical Paper

Cycle-resolved Computations of Compressible Flow in Engine

Turbulent flows in a model engine having a square piston were analyzed in detail by using a numerical simulation method with higher-order accuracy to perform simulations on an orthogonal homogeneous grid without grid motions. Calculations were performed during several continuous engine cycles. A better understanding of the cycle-by-cycle differences, i.e., cyclic variations, in flow fields may lead to more effective ways of stabilizing combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of a DISI Engine with a Centrally Located High-pressure Fuel Injector

Vehicle manufacturers developed two mixture formation concepts for the first generation of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Both the wall-guided concept with reverse tumble air motion or swirl air motion and the air-guided concept with tumble air motion have the fuel injector located at the side of the combustion chamber between the two intake ports. This paper proposes a new GDI concept. It has the fuel injector located at almost the center of the combustion chamber and with the spark plug positioned nearby. An oval bowl is provided in the piston crown. The fuel spray is injected at high fuel pressures of up to 100 MPa. The spray creates strong air motion in the combustion chamber and reaches the piston bowl. The wall of the piston bowl changes the direction of the spray and air motion, producing an upward flow. The spray and air flow rise and reach the spark plug.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.