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Technical Paper

Development of an Electrically-Driven Intelligent Brake Unit

An electrically-driven, intelligent brake unit has been developed, to be combined with a regenerative braking system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which went into production in 2010 - 11. The brake pedal force is assisted by an electrically driven motor, without using vacuum pressure, unlike conventional braking systems. The actuator can be implemented to coordinate with a regenerative braking system, and to have adjustable pedal feel through use of a unique pressure-generating mechanism and a pedal-force compensator. In this paper, we describe features of the actuator mechanism and performance test results
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Technical Paper

Application of Background Light Elimination Technique for Lane Marker Detection

An active vision system equipped with a high-speed pulsed light-emitting projector and a high-speed image sensor is proposed and applied to lane marker detection in this paper. The proposed system has the capability to suppress image information obtained from the background light and provides only the image information from the signal light emitted by the projector. This is accomplished by synchronizing image capture with the time of signal light emission. To reduce the power consumption and cost of the system, a relatively low intensity projector is used as the light source. The background illuminance on a bright day can be much higher than that of the signal. To improve the signal-to-background ratio, the signal light is modulated using a pulse width modulation technique. Then, the image is captured using a high-speed camera operating in synchronization with the time the signal light is emitted.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Development of an FCV with a New FC Stack for Improved Cold Start Capability

To promote widespread use of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), further improvement of cold start capability is required for operation in various extreme temperature regions all over the world. Sub-freezing, cold start issues of fuel cells must be resolved through gaining a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in a cell during cold start and by elucidating the mechanisms hindering cold startup. Nissan has improved its understanding of the physical phenomena occurring in a fuel cell (FC) during cold startup by a laboratory-scale FC experiment at subfreezing temperatures and a numerical calculation that expresses various transport processes in a fuel cell, including those of the reactant gases, water, electrons and heat. The results have identified several necessary conditions for mass transport in a cell during cold startup and the factors that limit and govern the phenomena involved.
Journal Article

Development of Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation System for Steering Evaluation Using Multibody Kinematic Analysis

The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-fueled HCCI Engine∼Mode Changes from SI Combustion to HCCI Combustion∼

Since the stable operating region of a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine is limited to the part load condition, a mode change between SI and HCCI combustion is required, which poses an issue due to the difference in combustion characteristics. This report focuses on the combustion characteristics in the transitional range. The combustion mode in the transitional range is investigated by varying the internal EGR rate, intake air pressure, and spark advance timing in steady-state experiments. In this parametric study, stable SI-CI combustion is observed. This indicates that the combustion mode transition is possible without misfiring or knocking, regardless of the speed of variable valve mechanism which includes VVA, VVEL, VTEC, VVL and so on, though the response of intake air pressure still remains as a subject to be examined in the actual application.
Technical Paper

Development of a Slip Speed Control System for a Lock-Up Clutch (Part II)

A new control system for the coasting range was designed with the μ-synthesis technique to achieve robust stability, based on the slip speed control system that was reported in our previous paper.(1) The results of driving tests conducted with the fuel supply cut off while coasting confirm that the new control system is able to avoid engine stall even under sudden hard braking on a low friction road (μ<0.1) at a vehicle speed of 20 km/h and a turbine speed of 1000 rpm. The system also allows the lock-up clutch to slip stably at a certain target slip speed at anytime while coasting and achieves robust performance against characteristic variations of the lock-up mechanism. This slip speed control system thus makes it possible to extend the fuel cut-off range to a lower engine speed of 800 rpm, down from 950 rpm, thereby improving fuel economy by about 1%.
Journal Article

Novel Microsurface Machining Techniques for Improving the Traction Coefficient

This study examined methods of machining a microsurface texture on the surface of the rolling elements of a toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) for improving the traction coefficient. The microsurface texture of the toroidal surfaces consists of tiny circumferential grooves (referred to here as micro grooves) and a mirror-like surface finish similar to the rolling surface of bearings. Hard turning with a cubic boron nitride (cBN) cutting tool, grinding with a cBN wheel and micro forming were applied to machine the micro grooves. The results made clear the practical potential of each method. A micro forming device was also developed for use in actual production. A mirror-like surface finish and micro crowning of the convex portions of the microsurface texture were simultaneously executed by superfinishing them with a fine-grained elastic superfinishing stone.
Technical Paper

Compact and Long-Stroke Multiple-Link VCR Engine Mechanism

A multiple-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism is suitable for a long-stroke engine by providing the following characteristics: (1) a nearly symmetric piston stroke and (2) an upper link that stays vertical around the time of the maximum combustion pressure. These two characteristics work to reduce force inputs to the piston. The maximum inertial force around top dead center is reduced by the effect of the first characteristic. The second characteristic is effective in reducing piston side thrust force and helps ease piston pin lubrication. Because of the combined effect of these characteristics, the piston skirt can be made smaller and the piston pin can be shortened. That makes it possible for the piston skirt and piston pin to move between the counterweights, resulting in a downward extension of the piston stroke. As a result, a longer-stroke engine mechanism can be achieved without making the cylinder block taller.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Coaxial Motor Driven by Compound Current

This paper describes the magnetic circuit design of a coaxial AC motor system, comprising one stator and two rotors, and the test results obtained for a prototype motor. The rotors of the motor share the same stator core and coils, and each rotor uses its magnetic part as a yoke. Magnetic flux linkage of each rotor was determined in consideration of the maximum torque/power conditions and maximum motor speed. Finite Element Method were utilized to design a magnetic circuit for achieving the magnetic flux linkage specification. Tests conducted with a prototype motor showed that the torque characteristics can be divided into magnetic torque and reluctance torque, just like an ordinary IPM motor. Each torque level was improved through field-weakening control. The combined torque obtained when the two rotors were driven simultaneously approximately equaled the sum of the individual torques when the rotors were driven independently.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz, enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture, and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions.
Technical Paper

Launch of ITS in Yokohama, Japan- Progress of an ITS Field Operational Test for Traffic Safety and Congestion -

In order to reduce traffic accidents and ease traffic congestion utilizing ITS (Intelligent Transportation System), a large-scale FOT (Field Operational Test) involving 2,000 ordinary drivers was launched in October 2006 in the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa, Japan. The test is slated to continue through March 2009. Target applications include Intersection Collision Avoidance using V-I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) communication, ISA (Intelligent Speed Advisory) using digital maps in the vehicle navigation system, and the probe system, which provides detailed traffic information. In this paper, the progress of this FOT will be introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prediction Method for Passenger Vehicle Aerodynamic Lift using CFD

Increasing expectations for stability at high speed call for the improvement of cars' aerodynamic performance, in particular lift reduction. However, due to styling constraints, traditional spoilers must be avoided and replaced by other solutions like underfloor components. Flow simulation is expected to be a useful tool for lift prediction, but the conventional models used so far did not represent complex geometry details such as the engine compartment and underfloor, and accuracy was insufficient. In the present study, a full vehicle simulation model, including the engine compartment and underfloor details, was used. Other improvements were also made such as optimization of the computational grid and the setting of boundary conditions for reproducing wind tunnel experiments or actual driving, making it possible to predict lift variations due to vehicle geometry changes.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

Driving Workload Comparison Between Older and Younger Drivers Using the Steering Entropy Method

In this study, an attempt was made to apply the steering entropy method, proposed by Boer and Nakayama as a workload measurement technique, to a comparative evaluation of the workload of older and younger drivers. As the first step, driving simulator tests were conducted to examine a method of making comparisons between subjects whose driving performance differed. The same method was then used in making evaluations during driving tests conducted with an actual vehicle. Under the conditions used in this study, the results indicate that it should be possible to compare driving workloads among different subjects through the combined used of Hp and α. Hp is a quantified value of steering perturbation as an information entropy value that is calculated from a time history of steering angle data. It changes between 0 (no steering perturbation) and 1 (absolute randomness) in a theoretical sense.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rollover Restraint Performance With and Without Seat Belt Pretensioner at Vehicle Trip

Eight rollover research tests were conducted using the 2001 Nissan Pathfinder with a modified FMVSS 208 dolly rollover test method where the driver and right front dummy restraint performance was analyzed. The rollover tests were initiated with the vehicle horizontal, not at a roll angle. After the vehicle translated laterally for a short distance, a trip mechanism was introduced to overturn the vehicle. Retractor, buckle, and latch plate performance in addition to the overall seat belt performance was analyzed and evaluated in the rollover test series. Retractor pretensioners were activated near the rollover trip in three of the tests to provide research data on its effects. Various dummy sizes were utilized. The test series experienced incomplete data collection and a portion of the analog data was not obtained. National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) data was also analyzed to quantify the characteristics of real world rollovers and demonstrated the benefits of restraint use.
Technical Paper

Correlation Tests Between Japanese Full-Scale Automotive Wind Tunnels Using the Correction Methods for Drag Coefficient

This paper describes results of the correlation tests between several full-scale automotive wind tunnels in Japan. The tests were carried out during FY 2003 by members of the working group for wind tunnel correlation test, which was organized in JSAE Vehicle Aerodynamics Research Committee. Five wind tunnels were selected, i.e., three open test section type wind tunnels and two closed ones. Four test models were selected, i.e., sedan, station wagon, minivan and hatch back car, all of which are current production models. Tests were done with EADE test conditions. Correlation formulas for drag coefficient, which are based on the previous methods by Mercker and Wiedemann [13] and Mercker [3, 10] respectively for open and closed test section type wind tunnels, were used. Also considered were the differences of the boundary layer thickness between five wind tunnels.