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Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lithium-ion Battery System for EVs

This paper presents a lightweight, high-performance Lithium-ion Battery System developed jointly by Nissan Motor Co. and Sony Corp. for electric vehicle (EV) use. Electric vehicles are generally powered by a battery pack consisting of numerous cells connected in a series. Management techniques to elicit the maximum performance of the battery pack are needed, including a function for monitoring individual cells to prevent them from over-discharging. Because of high cell voltage, lithium-ion batteries enable the number of cells in a battery pack to be greatly reduced compared with other types of battery systems. They also allow accurate detection of the battery State of Charge (SOC) based on the battery voltage. These characteristics are conducive to the application of battery pack management technology. These concepts provided the basis for the development of a Lithium-ion Battery System for EV application.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Car Navigation System Providing a Bird's-Eye View Map Display

A new map display technique has been developed for car navigation systems that presents a bird's-eye view of three-dimensional map images. This view allows both detailed and wide-area information to be presented simultaneously in a single screen display. It provides drivers with a reassuring feeling while driving along their route because the two types of information can guide them accurately to their destination. The results of evaluation tests have confirmed the effectiveness of this technique. On the other hand, some aspects requiring further improvement were also identified. This paper discusses how the technique was developed and describes the tests conducted to evaluate its effectiveness along with the results obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of a Valve Train Wear Test Procedure for Gasoline Engine Oil

An analysis was made of wear factors by investigating the effect of engine operating conditions on valve train wear. It was found that cam nose wear increased as larger amounts of combustion products, including nitrogen oxides and unburned gasoline, became intermixed with the engine oil. Based on these results, a valve train wear test procedure has been developed for evaluating cam nose and rocker arm wear under engine firing conditions. It has been confirmed that this test procedure correlates will with ASTM Sequence VE test and CCMC TU-3 test.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Belt-Drive CVT Fluid on the Friction Coefficient Between Metal Components

A block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine (LFW-1) was used as a test method for making fundamental evaluations of the effect of the Belt-Drive Continuously Variable Transmission(B-CVT) fluid on the friction coefficient between the belt and pulleys. The results confirmed that this method can simulate the friction phenomena between the belt and pulleys of an actual transmission. The mechanism whereby ZDDP and some Ca detergents improve the torque capacity of a B-CVT was also investigated along with the effect of the deterioration of these additives on the friction coefficient. It was found that these additives form a film, 80-90 nm in thickness, on the sliding surface, which is effective in increasing the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient declined with increasing additive deterioration. The results of a 31P-NMR analysis indicated that the decline closely correlated with the amount of ZDDP in the B-CVT fluid.
Technical Paper

Development of a Headway Distance Control System

This paper describes a headway distance control system for platoon driving on an automated highway system (AHS). The system implemented on a test vehicle is described first, followed by a description of a vehicle control method based on the use of throttle and brake actuators. This method makes it possible to obtain the target acceleration and deceleration regardless of the vehicle speed range and the rate of acceleration or deceleration. Experimental and simulation results obtained with this method are presented. A control method is then described that uses inter-vehicle communication and laser radar to maintain a constant headway between vehicles. The results of simulations and driving tests conducted with three vehicles are presented to illustrate that the use of inter-vehicle communication is highly effective in improving headway control performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Fatigue Resistance of Engine Exhaust Parts

The thermal fatigue resistance of engine exhaust system parts has conventionally been evaluated in thermal fatigue tests conducted with a restrained specimen. However, the test results have not always been consistent with data obtained in engine endurance tests. Two new evaluation methods have been developed to overcome this problem. One is a method of predicting thermal fatigue life on the basis of nonlinear elastic and plastic thermal analyses performed with a finite element model and the ABAQUS program. The other is a method of evaluating exhaust system parts using an exhaust system simulator. This paper describes the concepts underlying the two methods and their relative advantages.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Passenger Car Gasoline Engine Oils by JASO Test Procedures—Report by JASO Engine Oil Subcommittee

Japan Automobile Standards Organization (JASO) Engine Oil Sub-committee have been working on the unification of the engine oil evaluation test procedures in Japan. The Engine Oil Sub-committee participated in the recent activity of the worldwide engine oil standardization of SAE and ISO. As one of the chain of activities, JASO tests M328, M331, and M333 (valve train wear, detergency and high temperature oxidation respectively) were conducted on the REOs of ASTM and CEC to find the correlation. The detergency tests (varnish and sludge) showed good correlation with the ASTM REOs. CEC good and poor reference oils seemed to give good results in JASO valve train wear test, while ASTM reference oils unexpectedly gave opposite results in Japanese valve train wear tests.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Powerplant Vibration Level in the Acceleration Noise Region Based on Analysis of Crankshaft System Behavior

Increased attention has been directed toward noise and vibration characteristics of vehicles in recent years and the performance requirements in this area continue to become more rigorous every year. The acceleration noise in a frequency range of 250 ∼ 800Hz caused by powerplant vibration is important, and there is a need to reduce this noise level. In addition to reducing noise and vibration, however, there is also a growing need to achieve further weight reductions. Consequently, it is essential to reduce the weight of a powerplant without increasing its vibration levels. This make it necessary to predict powerplant vibration characteristics accurately at the planning and design stage so that suitable specifications can be determined. Specifications for reducing powerplant vibration have traditionally been found by experimentation. However, in powerplant excitation tests it has not been possible to take into consideration the effect of the crankshaft system on powerplant vibration.
Technical Paper

Study on Air Bag Systems for Nissan Small-Sized Cars

This paper outlines the most important characteristics of the practical type air bag now being developed by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. It explains the results of various occupant protection tests conducted at 16 to 64 km/h (10 to 40 mph) speeds, and the related problems we have encountered. It further discusses the effects of several type of occupant protection systems installed on small-sized cars and the relationships between those effects and limited crash speeds. An examination and analysis of air bag performance test results is also included. Despite all efforts made, there yet remain several problems to be solved. For example, (a) in high-speed collisions it is difficult to reduce femur load by means of air bag systems alone; (b) passengers such as three-year-old infants and 5th percentile female adults display a tendency toward submarining: (c) when the environmental temperature is extremely low, it is difficult for the air bag to meet the MVSS Occupant Protection Requirements.
Technical Paper

On Fatigue Testing of Passenger Car Body Construction

Fatigue tests on a body in white have been made with torsional load and compared with previous results for assessments, where it was difficult to agree with proving ground tests in evaluating the life. Modifying the above mentioned fault, a programmed fatigue test method on the body in white is presented in this paper. The newly developed programmed fatigue test method is the simultaneous loading of the bouncing and torsional modes to a body in while by an electrohydraulic fatigue testing machine in accordance with the programmed sprung mass accelerations. Applying this method, the comparatively accurate assessment of proving ground test was made at the condition of the body in white, and the development period for body construction was shortened.
Technical Paper

Research Concentrated on An Experimental Method for Protecting Pedestrians

This paper describes a test procedure in which a dummy and a sled impact tester are used to simulate vehicle-pedestrian accidents for the purpose of investigating pedestrian protection. In the series of tests conducted, the bumper height, hood-edge height, bumper lead, front-end compliance of the vehicle, impact velocity, and other factors were varied in an effort to clarify to what extent modifications to the vehicle front end would contribute to enhanced pedestrian protection. Preliminary test findings obtained with this test procedure are also presented regarding the effects of the front-end shape of the vehicle and the stance of the dummy at the moment of impact.
Technical Paper

Development of a Steering Entropy Method for Evaluating Driver Workload

The authors have developed a steering entropy method to easily and accurately quantify the workload imposed on drivers who are engaged in activities apart from the normal driving operations of longitudinal and lateral control. A driver's steering behavior tends to become more discontinuous while performing an activity in addition to driving. To quantify these discontinuities, steering entropy values are obtained from a time-series history of steering angle data. A special-purpose driving simulator and a test procedure have been developed that allow workload evaluations to be conducted efficiently. The simulator and test procedure were used to evaluate the additional workload incurred by 14 different types of activities. The steering entropy results were compared with a dual task method as well as a subjective evaluation method.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

New Copper Alloy Powder for Laser-Clad Valve Seat Used in Aluminum Cylinder Heads

A copper alloy powder composed of Cu-14Ni-3Si-2V-2Cr-1.5Fe-1Al-0.5P has been developed for application to laser-clad valve seats. Laser-clad valve seats offer several advantages such as higher engine output and improved fuel economy owing to lower valve head temperature and an increased intake throat diameter compared with conventional press-fit valve inserts made of ferro-based powder metal. Previously, a material having a principal chemical composition of Cu-12Ni-10Co-3Si-2V-2Nb-1.5Fe-1Al was developed to obtain large hard intermetallic compounds. The microstructure of this material is formed by a two-liquid separation reaction, which has been applied to powders of different chemical compositions for laser-clad valve seats of production engines. Although this material shows superior valve seat wear resistance, it has certain drawbacks, including the high cost of the powder, high probability of microcrack formation and low machinability of the laser-clad layer.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Coaxial Motor Driven by Compound Current

This paper describes the magnetic circuit design of a coaxial AC motor system, comprising one stator and two rotors, and the test results obtained for a prototype motor. The rotors of the motor share the same stator core and coils, and each rotor uses its magnetic part as a yoke. Magnetic flux linkage of each rotor was determined in consideration of the maximum torque/power conditions and maximum motor speed. Finite Element Method were utilized to design a magnetic circuit for achieving the magnetic flux linkage specification. Tests conducted with a prototype motor showed that the torque characteristics can be divided into magnetic torque and reluctance torque, just like an ordinary IPM motor. Each torque level was improved through field-weakening control. The combined torque obtained when the two rotors were driven simultaneously approximately equaled the sum of the individual torques when the rotors were driven independently.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ankle/Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes

Finite element models of human body segments have been developed in recent years. Numerical simulation could be helpful when understanding injury mechanisms and to make injury assessments. In the lower leg injury research in NISSAN, a finite element model of the human ankle/foot is under development. The mesh for the bony part was taken from the original model developed by Beaugonin et al., but was revised by adding soft tissue to reproduce realistic responses. Damping effect in a high speed contact was taken into account by modeling skin and fat in the sole of the foot. The plantar aponeurosis tendon was modeled by nonlinear bar elements connecting the phalanges to the calcaneus. The rigid body connection, which was defined at the toe in the original model for simplicity, was removed and the transverse ligaments were added instead in order to bind the metatarsals and the phalanges. These tendons and ligaments were expected to reproduce a realistic response in compression.