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Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0480
This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Fuel Mixing Process in a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981440
The spray formation and mixing processes in a direct-injection gasoline engine are examined by using a sophisticated air flow calculation model and an original spray model. The spray model for a spiral injector can evaluate the droplet size and spatial distribution under a wide range of parameters such as the initial cone angle, back pressure and injection pressure. This model also includes the droplet breakup process due to wall impingement. The arbitrary constants used in the spray model are derived theoretically without using any experimental data. Fuel vapor distributions just before ignition and combustion processes are analyzed for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension for Front-Wheel-Drive Cars

1995-02-01
950585
Research into stability at high speed shows that rear suspension characteristics play an important role in vehicle control and stability. In order to improve the cornering limit steering performance and traction of front-wheel-drive vehicles, where the front wheels bear a large proportion of the load and transmit the driving force, and to maintain vehicle stability when decelerating while cornering, rear suspension characteristics are needed that will fully draw out the cornering force capacity of the rear tires. This requirement continues to grow every year, along with demands for higher levels of comfort in passenger cars, including improved ride quality and quietness. It was against this background that the new multi-link beam rear suspension, which is installed in the new Maxima and Sentra models, was developed. This paper describes the aims, construction, characteristics and effects of this new suspension, with focus on vehicle control and stability.
Technical Paper

Manufacturing Methods for a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940994
This paper describes various methods and technologies that have been newly implemented for manufacturing a new-generation V6 engine with high product quality and at low cost. This new engine, the VQ30DE, is mounted in the latest Maxima model. Design for manufacturability was pursued through concurrent engineering between the product development and production engineering departments from the initial stage and included the development of a new system for evaluating productivity. A new engine plant was also constructed which adopts new automation facilities to minimize production time. These new approaches support the production of a high-quality, high-reliability engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance Dash Silencer Made of a Novel Shaped Fiber Sound-Absorbing Material

1996-02-01
960192
Interior quietness has been improved year by year until it has now become one of the basic performance requirements of vehicles. Traditional approaches to assuring quietness have been to increase the weight of sound insulation barriers or to enlarge sound insulation space. Such methods run counter to the aims of reducing vehicle weight and providing a more spacious interior. In this research, an attempt was made to overcome this trade-off by adopting a new material for the sound-absorbing material used in vehicles. The newly developed-sound absorbing material consists mainly of modified cross-section polyester fabric. It provides noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional material like shoddy or formed urethane. This is attributed to increased friction between the fibers and air, owing to the greater surface aria of the modified cross-section polyester fiber compare with that of the circular cross-section of ordinary fibers at an identical weight.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Effect of Introducing Low-Emission Vehicles on Air Quality Improvement

1996-05-01
961209
The effect of the introduction of low-emission vehicles on potential air quality improvement in the Los Angeles area was predicted using a three-dimensional airshed simulation model. The simulations were based on ozone concentration estimates made on the basis of data released by the California Air Resources Board concerning projected quantities of emissions from various sources in 2010. Analyses were made of three scenarios. One assumed that LEV, ULEV and ZEV regulations were enforced as planned, a second assumed that these planned regulations were modified; and a third assumed that emission levels from various sources were reduced in line with the goals of the Air Quality Management Plan formulated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Torque Capacity of a Metal Pushing V-Belt for CVTs

1998-02-23
980822
The mechanism causing the micro slip characteristic of a metal CVT belt during torque transmission was analyzed, focusing on the gap distribution between the elements. It was hypothesized that gaps between the elements cause slip to occur between the elements and the pulleys when the belt is squeezed between the two halves of the pulleys, and the slip ratio was calculated theoretically on that assumption. The μ-v (friction coefficient versus sliding velocity) characteristic between the elements and the pulleys was measured and the results were used in calculating the slip ratio. As a result, a simulation procedure was developed for predicting the slip-limit torque of the belt on the basis of calculations. The slip ratio found by simulation and the calculated slip-limit torque showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the validity of the simulation procedure.
Technical Paper

Factoring Nonlinear Kinematics into New Suspension Design: A CAE Approach to Vehicle Roll Dynamics

1994-03-01
940871
Over the past several decades, vehicle dynamics have been treated mainly on the basis of linear theories. An actual vehicle, however, also shows nonlinear properties such as roll behavior induced by movement of the roll axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vehicle roll dynamics in the nonlinear range. Suspensions were divided into two categories and computer-aided engineering (CAE) was used to conduct analyses of complicated kinematics. The results obtained provided theoretical support for designing the Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension, a new type of suspension for front-wheel-drive cars.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

Research on Crankshaft System Behavior Based on Coupled Crankshaft-Block Analysis

1997-10-01
972922
Achieving a multi-cylinder engine with excellent noise/vibration character sties and low friction at the main bearings requires an optimal design not only for the crankshaft construction but also for the bearing support system of the cylinder block. To accomplish that, it is necessary to understand crankshaft system behavior and the bearing load distribution for each of the main bearings. Crankshaft system behavior has traditionally been evaluated experimentally because of the difficulty in performing calculations to predict resonance behavior over the entire engine speed range. A coupled crankshaft-block analysis method has been developed to calculate crankshaft system behavior by treating vibration and lubrication in a systematic manner. This method has the feature that the coupled behavior of the crankshaft and the cylinder block is analyzed by means of main bearing lubrication calculations. This paper presents the results obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Causing High-Speed Brake Judder

1998-02-23
980594
Brake judder caused by uneven heat spots on brake disc surfaces is a major issue in improving vehicle quality. This is especially true for rumble that occurs during high-speed braking. In order to determine the excitation mechanism of brake judder, it is necessary to measure the dynamic brake disc geometry and temperature distribution during actual operation on the road. A noncontact sensor system, suitable for a high temperature environment, was used to monitor these parameters, making it possible to visualize heat spots transiently. The data obtained revealed the influence of pad and disc parameters on heat spot formation.
Technical Paper

Information Services for Greater Driving Enjoyment

1998-02-23
980614
A prototype navigation system with cellular phone access to an information service center was constructed and evaluated. Center personnel can also operate the system remotely, in addition to providing traffic information and information for more enjoyable travel. Real-time conversation with a center operator is also possible. The system was rated positively by most of the subjects, especially the real-time voice service. This paper describes the car navigation market and cellular phone market in Japan, the system configuration, evaluation results and possible solutions to problems in the system. It also touches on the outlook for future car navigation systems and information services.
Technical Paper

Development of a Headway Distance Control System

1998-02-01
980616
This paper describes a headway distance control system for platoon driving on an automated highway system (AHS). The system implemented on a test vehicle is described first, followed by a description of a vehicle control method based on the use of throttle and brake actuators. This method makes it possible to obtain the target acceleration and deceleration regardless of the vehicle speed range and the rate of acceleration or deceleration. Experimental and simulation results obtained with this method are presented. A control method is then described that uses inter-vehicle communication and laser radar to maintain a constant headway between vehicles. The results of simulations and driving tests conducted with three vehicles are presented to illustrate that the use of inter-vehicle communication is highly effective in improving headway control performance.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Multiplexing System for Automotive Distributed Control

1991-02-01
910718
On board multiplexing communication system is regarded as a necessary technology for the future of electronic system in automobiles. Many companies are developing multiplexing systems and the ISO and SAE are active in establishing standards for communication protocols. The proposed communication protocol specifications have different specifications. Consequently, no compatible evaluation standards existed, and it was difficult to compare one protocol to another. Therefore, to assist the standardization activities of the IS0 and SAE, we have developed an evaluation method for distributed multiplexed communication systems and evaluated each of the proposed protocols using this method. These evaluations were performed from the point of view of the future users of these systems. In this paper we present the results of the experiments on distributed multiplexed communication systems each of which consists of communication IC and the proposed physical layer.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Navigation and Audio-Visual System (Multi-AV System)

1990-02-01
900473
This paper describes the Multi-AV System featured in the 1989 model Nissan Cedric, Gloria, and CIMA. It is composed of a navigation system and an audio-visual system. The former system tracks the location of the vehicle and shows it on a CRT map display. This standalone navigation system has been achieved using a map-matching technique along with a terrestrial magnetic field sensor and wheel speed sensors installed at the wheels. Information on hotels, golf courses, Nissan dealers and other items can be obtained. A CD-ROM is employed as the memory. The audio-visual system consists of a radio, cassette deck, CD player, and TV. The Multi-AV System combines the practicality of a navigation function with the entertainment capabilities of an audio-visual system to satisfy diverse needs.
Technical Paper

The Application of Image Processing to Laser Displacement and Strain Analysis

1987-10-01
871947
New image processing procedures for speckle photography and holographic interferometry are described. The algorithm for speckle photography measures the displacement value and direction automatically within the accuracy of ±5% over a range of 10 µm to 150 µm. This algorithm has adopted the Maximum Entropy Method to measure fringe intervals with high accuracy. The algorithm for holographic interferometry detects the fringe line and determines the displacement distribution with an operator's assist. Through the experiments, it was shown that these procedures are effective and accurate for vibration and deformation analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Heat Flow Distribution in the Engine Compartment

1993-03-01
930883
The use of higher output engines and more auxiliary units is resulting in greater heat generation in the engine compartment. At the same time, design trends and demands for improved aerodynamic performance are diminishing the cooling air flow rate. These two sets of factors are making the thermal environment in the engine compartment more severe. In this work, heat flow in the engine compartment was investigated by numerical analysis and flow visualization, and flow control devices were devised for optimizing the temperature distribution. This paper discusses the heat flow optimization techniques and presents the results obtained in experiments with an actual vehicle.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on Navigation Systems at Nissan

1993-11-01
931921
Nissan is offering navigation systems in some domestic production models. These systems, which show drivers the vehicle's present location on a CRT map display, free them from anxiety about getting lost when traveling in an unfamiliar area. It is expected that future navigation systems will incorporate two key capabilities. One will be a route guidance capability, which will not only indicate the present location but also select the optimal route to the intended destination and guide drivers there by indicating which direction to take at each intersection along the way. The second capability will be a communications link with the roadside infrastructure for receiving outside information such as traffic congestion data and incorporating that information into route guidance. Nissan has established the core technologies of these navigation capabilities in the past ten years through the development of conceptual prototypes and experimental systems in government-sponsored projects.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Practical Numerical Analysis Method for Heat Flow Distribution in the Engine Compartment

1993-04-01
931081
The thermal environment in the automotive engine compartment is expected to become increasingly severe in the years ahead owing to the installation of a large-size manifold catalyst to reduce exhaust emissions, among other factors. This will make it even more important to analyze the engine compartment layout in terms of heat flow considerations at the design conceptualization stage of a new vehicle. In this research, a flow analysis program called DRAG4D was applied to find the flow velocity distribution and ambient air temperature distribution in the engine compartment during driving, idling and after the engine was turned off. This original program developed at Nissan takes into account the effects of the energy balance and buoyancy, and provides a practical level of prediction accuracy. The time required to create an analytical model and perform the computations has been shortened by using an automatic grid generation function, based on a solid model, and experimental equations.
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